2011
DOI: 10.3922/j.psns.2011.3.006
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Levels of processing: The evolution of a framework.

Abstract: Although the levels of processing framework have evolved over its nearly 40 years of existence, the essence of the idea has not changed from the original. The original article published in 1972 suggests that in the encoding stage of a stimulus, there is a series of processing hierarchies ranging from the shallowest level (perceptual processing-the subject initially perceives the physical and sensory characteristics of the stimulus) to the deepest level (semantic processing-related to pattern recognition and ex… Show more

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Cited by 19 publications
(15 citation statements)
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References 44 publications
(73 reference statements)
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“…Numerical transcoding is not necessarily semantically mediated, which implies that it is possible to write down a number and/or read it aloud without thinking about its meaning (Dehaene, 2001). Further cognitive processing is required to actually comprehend the number that was heard (Ekuni, Vaz, & Bueno, 2011).…”
Section: Semantic Processingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Numerical transcoding is not necessarily semantically mediated, which implies that it is possible to write down a number and/or read it aloud without thinking about its meaning (Dehaene, 2001). Further cognitive processing is required to actually comprehend the number that was heard (Ekuni, Vaz, & Bueno, 2011).…”
Section: Semantic Processingmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The effect of positive affect on encoding stems partly from the levels of processing framework of memory (Craik & Lockhart, 1972;Craik, 2002). The levels of processing framework is one of the most robust, most frequently cited, and most influential theories in cognitive psychology, having undergone more than 40 years of experimentation and development (Ekuni, Vaz, & Bueno, 2011;Richardson-Klavehn, Gardiner, & Ramponi, 2002). This theory posits that various levels of depth exist in the encoding and storage of information in memory.…”
Section: Encoding and Positive Affectmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Nonetheless, examining the impact of stress on the long-term memory retention is important because it reflects how stress often operates in the real world. Stress can occur prior to or during encoding of an event that one may need to remember sometime later such as in the case of eyewitness testimony [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15].…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
confidence: 99%