volume 168, issue 9, P710-714 2020
DOI: 10.1111/eea.12960
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André Rodrigues De Souza, Rafael Carvalho da Silva, Ríudo Paiva Ferreira, Sidnei Mateus, Amanda Prato, Cintia Akemi Oi, Fernando Barbosa Noll, José Lino‐Neto

Abstract: Larval genital discs are sexually dimorphic in many social wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespidae). These sexual traits are visible in vivo and in long-term ethanol-preserved samples. Genital disc morphology provides a cheap, quick, and accurate way to distinguish larvae of females and males.