2018
DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00424
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Intrinsic and Extrinsic Neuromodulation of Olfactory Processing

Abstract: Neuromodulation is a ubiquitous feature of neural systems, allowing flexible, context specific control over network dynamics. Neuromodulation was first described in invertebrate motor systems and early work established a basic dichotomy for neuromodulation as having either an intrinsic origin (i.e., neurons that participate in network coding) or an extrinsic origin (i.e., neurons from independent networks). In this conceptual dichotomy, intrinsic sources of neuromodulation provide a “memory” by adjusting netwo… Show more

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Cited by 46 publications
(42 citation statements)
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References 186 publications
(248 reference statements)
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“…Inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the olfactory bulb play a critical role in synchronization and regulation of neuronal signals required for appropriate odor discrimination (Lizbinski & Dacks, ; Tabor, Yaksi, & Friedrich, ). The lack of observed effects of CO 2 in the olfactory epithelium and some discrete regions of the olfactory bulb may be due to differential spatial distribution of GABAergic neurons and GABA receptors within these tissues and the role of GABAergic neurons in regulating signaling of specific odorants and mixtures (Cocco et al, ; Lizbinski & Dacks, ; McGann, ; Tabor et al, ). For example, while G protein‐coupled GABA B receptors are present in the axonal presynaptic region of the olfactory sensory neurons within the olfactory bulbs, GABA A receptors are broadly present on mitral/tufted cell secondary neurons within the olfactory bulb (McGann, ; Tan, Savigner, Ma, & Luo, ).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Inhibitory GABAergic neurons in the olfactory bulb play a critical role in synchronization and regulation of neuronal signals required for appropriate odor discrimination (Lizbinski & Dacks, ; Tabor, Yaksi, & Friedrich, ). The lack of observed effects of CO 2 in the olfactory epithelium and some discrete regions of the olfactory bulb may be due to differential spatial distribution of GABAergic neurons and GABA receptors within these tissues and the role of GABAergic neurons in regulating signaling of specific odorants and mixtures (Cocco et al, ; Lizbinski & Dacks, ; McGann, ; Tabor et al, ). For example, while G protein‐coupled GABA B receptors are present in the axonal presynaptic region of the olfactory sensory neurons within the olfactory bulbs, GABA A receptors are broadly present on mitral/tufted cell secondary neurons within the olfactory bulb (McGann, ; Tan, Savigner, Ma, & Luo, ).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Our EEG recordings support this hypothesis, as elevated CO 2 exposures increased the amplitude, and tended to increase the dura- It has been hypothesized that the main mechanism of behavioral disruption by elevated CO 2 exposure is via alteration of GABA signaling in the central nervous system, driven by a reversal of the Cl − / HCO 3 + membrane gradient and a linked disruption of the normal inhibitory action of the GABA A receptor (Nilsson et al, 2012). The and regulation of neuronal signals required for appropriate odor discrimination (Lizbinski & Dacks, 2017;Tabor, Yaksi, & Friedrich, 2008). The lack of observed effects of CO 2 in the olfactory epithelium and some discrete regions of the olfactory bulb may be due to differential spatial distribution of GABAergic neurons and GABA receptors within these tissues and the role of GABAergic neurons in regulating signaling of specific odorants and mixtures (Cocco et al, 2017;Lizbinski & Dacks, 2017;McGann, 2013;Tabor et al, 2008).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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“…Dopaminergic modulation in olfactory learning has primarily been studied in the mushroom bodies [22][23][24] , which receive afferents from the ALs and integrate signals from different senses as well as reward and punishment. However, neuromodulation at the level of the AL can induce neuroplasticity, mediate gain control of olfactory signals, and change the strength of output to higherorder centers like the mushroom bodies 25 . In Ae.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Virtually all neuronal circuits are subject to neuromodulation from both neurons intrinsic to a network and extrinsic centrifugal sources (1,2). In vertebrates, extrinsic modulation is often supplied by nuclei located deep within the brainstem that release a variety of transmitters such as norepinephrine (NE) (3), serotonin (5-HT) (4,5), dopamine (DA) (6,7), or acetylcholine (Ach) (8).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%