Studies of plant defenses and insect herbivores have been important in the development of our understanding of coevolution and specialization. Milkweed-herbivore systems have been a model for studying plant secondary chemistry defense evolution, insect adaptations to that chemistry, and coevolution between toxic plants and their herbivores for over a century. Yet, we are only beginning to unravel the multitude of adaptations required for insect specialization on milkweed plants. We review the empirical eviden…
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