2005
DOI: 10.1590/s0074-02762005000900031
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Inflammatory effects of snake venom metalloproteinases

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Cited by 84 publications
(30 citation statements)
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“…The mechanism of edema formation is very complex and is either due to the direct effect of venom components in the microvasculature, with the consequent extravasations or due to the generation/release of many inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, nitric oxide, kinins, and histamines. In addition to myotoxic PLA 2 s, hyaluronidases and SVMPs activities are also found to increase vascular permeability by softening the tissue and generating pro-inflammatory end products [13,18,[40][41][42]. Several non-enzymatic toxins from various venoms have also been shown to cause the edema [18].…”
Section: Local Toxicitymentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The mechanism of edema formation is very complex and is either due to the direct effect of venom components in the microvasculature, with the consequent extravasations or due to the generation/release of many inflammatory mediators, such as cytokines, nitric oxide, kinins, and histamines. In addition to myotoxic PLA 2 s, hyaluronidases and SVMPs activities are also found to increase vascular permeability by softening the tissue and generating pro-inflammatory end products [13,18,[40][41][42]. Several non-enzymatic toxins from various venoms have also been shown to cause the edema [18].…”
Section: Local Toxicitymentioning
confidence: 99%
“…injection and releasing important inflammatory mediators such as the eicosanoids PGD 2 , PGE 2 , TXA 2 , LTB 4 , the cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and the chemokine CCL-2 [52]. These inflammatory effects are most commonly related to phospholipases A 2 and metalloproteinases [72,73], although other classes of enzymes may also contribute to these responses [49].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Similar to classical inflammatory events, these responses trigger vascular and cellular events, characterized by vascular alterations in caliber and blood flow, edema, cell migration from the microcirculation, and accumulation at the focus of the injury via chemotaxis and the activation of several inflammatory mediators. It was suggested that neutrophils play an important role in Bothrops local envenoming (Teixeira et al, 2005(Teixeira et al, , 2009) and that the leukocyte influx is modulated by thyroid hormones (Marino et al, 2006;De Vito et al, 2011).…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%