Abstract:This study investigated the association of copper levels and monocyte plasticity between M1 (CD14+ CD16−) and M2 (CD14− CD16++) phenotypes. Five samples of female bovine PBMCs were incubated in 0, 4, 8 and 16 μM copper and stimulated (PPD-A, TLR- 2 ligand (Pam3CSK4), or media alone) before they were washed and stained for cell surface expression analysis by flow cytometry. M1 function was measured through nitric oxide production using a Griess assay. Flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in vi… Show more
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