Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of neonatal dermatoses in the early neonatal
period and to associate them with neonatal, demographic and obstetric
variables.Methods: A cross-sectional study with neonates and their respective mothers, who were
hospitalized in a public maternity hospital in Curitiba, PR, Brazil. Data
collection was performed using information present in the medical records
and a physical examination of the newborn during the period between April
2015 and May 2016.Results: 350 neonates were evaluated. 54.8% were male, and 94.8% (332/350) presented
a dermatosis. Among them, 84.6% had, concomitantly, two or more dermatoses.
A total of 23 types of dermatoses were diagnosed. The most prevalent were:
sebaceous hyperplasia (66%); fluff (42.6%); and salmon patches (41.4%). The
mean age of the mothers was 24.9±4.9 years old, and they were predominately
white (57.7%). Vernix caseosa was associated with the female gender
(p=0.034). Nonwhite mothers were associated with genital hyperpigmentation
(p=0.03) and Mongolian spots (p=0.001). Physiological flaking was associated
with cesarean deliveries (p=0.03) and a gestational age of over 40 weeks
(p=0.054). Salmon patches was associated with primiparity (p=0.0001).Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of neonatal dermatosis in the studied
population. Each newborn had, on average, three different dermatoses.
Dermatosis in neonates was associated with primiparity, nonwhites, a
gestational age of over 40 weeks, and the sex of the newborn.