In this paper, the ( G ′ / G , 1 / G ) -expansion method is applied to acquire some new, exact solutions of certain interesting, nonlinear, fractional-order partial differential equations arising in mathematical physics. The considered equations comprise the time-fractional, (2+1)-dimensional extended quantum Zakharov-Kuznetsov equation, and the space-time-fractional generalized Hirota-Satsuma coupled Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) system in the sense of the conformable fractional derivative. Applying traveling wave transformations to the equations, we obtain the corresponding ordinary differential equations in which each of them provides a system of nonlinear algebraic equations when the method is used. As a result, many analytical exact solutions obtained of these equations are expressed in terms of hyperbolic function solutions, trigonometric function solutions, and rational function solutions. The graphical representations of some obtained solutions are demonstrated to better understand their physical features, including bell-shaped solitary wave solutions, singular soliton solutions, solitary wave solutions of kink type, and so on. The method is very efficient, powerful, and reliable for solving the proposed equations and other nonlinear fractional partial differential equations with the aid of a symbolic software package.