ObjectiveTo explore the outcomes of NMOSD attacks and investigate serum biomarkers for prognosis and severity.MethodPatients with NMOSD attacks were prospectively and observationally enrolled from January 2019 to December 2020 at four hospitals in Guangzhou, southern China. Data were collected at attack, discharge and 1/3/6 months after acute treatment. Serum cytokine/chemokine and neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels were examined at the onset stage.ResultsOne hundred patients with NMOSD attacks were included. The treatment comprised intravenous methylprednisolone pulse therapy alone (IVMP, 71%), IVMP combined with apheresis (8%), IVMP combined with intravenous immunoglobulin (18%) and other therapies (3%). EDSS scores decreased significantly from a medium of 4 (interquartile range 3.0–5.5) at attack to 3.5 (3.0–4.5) at discharge, 3.5 (2.0–4.0) at the 1-month visit and 3.0 (2.0–4.0) at the 3-month visit (p<0.01 in all comparisons). The remission rate was 38.0% at discharge and 63.3% at the 1-month visit. Notably, relapse occurred in 12.2% of 74 patients by the 6-month follow-up. Higher levels of T helper cell 2 (Th2)-related cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IL-1 receptor antagonist, predicted remission at the 1-month visit (OR=9.33, p=0.04). Serum NfL levels correlated positively with onset EDSS scores in acute-phase NMOSD (p<0.001, R2 = 0.487).ConclusionsOutcomes of NMOSD attacks were generally moderate. A high level of serum Th2-related cytokines predicted remission at the 1-month visit, and serum NfL may serve as a biomarker of disease severity at attack.Clinical Trial Registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04101058, identifier NCT04101058.