2014
DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00011
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Does language dominance affect cognitive performance in bilinguals? Lifespan evidence from preschoolers through older adults on card sorting, Simon, and metalinguistic tasks

Abstract: This study explores the extent to which a bilingual advantage can be observed for three tasks in an established population of fully fluent bilinguals from childhood through adulthood. Welsh-English simultaneous and early sequential bilinguals, as well as English monolinguals, aged 3 years through older adults, were tested on three sets of cognitive and executive function tasks. Bilinguals were Welsh-dominant, balanced, or English-dominant, with only Welsh, Welsh and English, or only English at home. Card sorti… Show more

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Cited by 242 publications
(245 citation statements)
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References 59 publications
(84 reference statements)
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“…Thus, our results are consistent with the argument that selective attention offers no additional processing advantage in bilinguals (see Gathercole et al, 2014;Paap & Greenberg, 2013). Moreover, our results highlight the importance of adopting multiple tasks to identify the aspects of executive processes that are enhanced in bilinguals (Paap et al, 2015).…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 81%
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“…Thus, our results are consistent with the argument that selective attention offers no additional processing advantage in bilinguals (see Gathercole et al, 2014;Paap & Greenberg, 2013). Moreover, our results highlight the importance of adopting multiple tasks to identify the aspects of executive processes that are enhanced in bilinguals (Paap et al, 2015).…”
Section: Discussionsupporting
confidence: 81%
“…At first glance the present findings appear to be at odds with studies that reported no differences in attention between monolinguals and bilinguals who were university students (i.e., young adults: Gathercole et al, 2014;Paap & Greenberg, 2013). We employed two attention tasks -Stop Signal Reaction Time and Flanker tasks.…”
Section: Discussioncontrasting
confidence: 54%
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“…Fuller-Thomson & Kuh, 2014;Kousaie & Phillips, 2012;Morton & Harper, 2007) or leisure activities that are also potentially beneficial for cognitive performance such as video-gaming, musical training, or doing exercise (Valian, 2015). Last but not least, evidence favoring the bilingual advantage stems primarily from small-scale studies (average n = 29), whereas larger-scale studies (average n = 45; Paap, et al, 2014) more often reported null-effects (e.g., Antón et al, 2014;Duñabeitia et al, 2014;Gathercole, et al, 2014;Hernández, Martin, Barceló, & Costa, 2013). This is particularly critical as small samples have been shown to be more prone to produce false-positive findings (Button et al, 2013).…”
Section: Potential Sources Of Inconsistencies Between Findingsmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Instead, it is crucial for scientific progress that theory is informed by both positive and null findings, especially so in a field that is at high risk for false-positives publication bias, and vague theorizing. First, as pointed out by Paap (2014), many studies examining bilingual advantages comprised only relatively small samples, with the majority of larger-scale studies failing to detect consistent bilingual advantages (e.g., Antón, et al, 2014;Duñabeitia, et al, 2014;Gathercole, et al, 2014;Hernández, et al, 2013;Paap, et al, 2014; but see Luo, et al, 2013). Small sample sizes are indeed more likely to produce false-positive findings (Button, et al, 2013), the risk of which is additionally increased by research on the bilingual advantage being a particularly 'hot topic' (Ioannidis, 2005) given the desire to report statistically significant results (Simmons, Nelson, & Simonsohn, 2011).…”
Section: Does the Bilingual Advantage Emerge Only For Specific Tasksmentioning
confidence: 99%