2023
DOI: 10.1097/dss.0000000000004040
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Development and Validation of a Photonumeric Scale to Assess Marionette Lines

Nicola Kefalas,
Sofía Ruiz del Cueto,
Fernando Urdiales-Gálvez
et al.

Abstract: BACKGROUND A validated scale is needed for objective and reproducible comparisons of marionette lines before and after treatment in clinical studies. OBJECTIVE To describe the development and validation of a 5-point photonumeric marionette lines scale. METHODS The scale was developed to include an assessment guide, verbal descriptors, and real and morphed subject images for each scale grade. Intrarater and i… Show more

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