2013
DOI: 10.2147/opth.s28863
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Current and emerging treatment options for uveal melanoma

Abstract: Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary malignant intraocular tumor in adults, with a 10-year cumulative metastatic rate of 34%. The most common site of metastasis is the liver (95%). Unfortunately, the current treatment of metastatic UM is limited by the lack of effective systemic therapy. Options for the management of the primary intraocular tumor include radical surgery as well as conservative treatments in order to preserve visual acuity. For metastatic disease, several approaches have been describe… Show more

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Cited by 70 publications
(90 citation statements)
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“…[24][25][26] In many types of cancer, epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression have become therapeutic targets. Other investigators have explored the use of epigenetic mechanisms of disease control in uveal melanoma through inhibiting histone deacetylation using FDA-approved agents with promising results, and vorinostat, a histone deacetylation inhibitor, is in phase 2 studies.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…[24][25][26] In many types of cancer, epigenetic mechanisms controlling gene expression have become therapeutic targets. Other investigators have explored the use of epigenetic mechanisms of disease control in uveal melanoma through inhibiting histone deacetylation using FDA-approved agents with promising results, and vorinostat, a histone deacetylation inhibitor, is in phase 2 studies.…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Advances over the past few decades have given us powerful tools for controlling uveal melanoma locally and preventing enucleation; however, we have yet to develop an effective treatment to reduce the risk of metastatic disease or to effectively treat it when it occurs [1][2][3]. Waiting for growth to occur in small lesions identified as high risk by an ophthalmologist can increase the risk of metastasis even when controlling for tumor size (relative risk of 8 controlling for tumor size) [4,5].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…The vast majority of these affect the choroid, the pigmented, highly vascular layer of the eye between the sclera and the retina (1). Uveal melanomas are rare, with a mean age-adjusted incidence of 5.1 per million in the United States per year, but are sight-and life-threatening (2,3). The case-fatality rate for uveal melanoma is approximately 50%, with most deaths due to liver metastases (4).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%