volume 169, issue 2, P209-218 2020
DOI: 10.1111/eea.12996
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Maria C. Velasco‐Hernandez, K.S. Shameer, M. Nasser, Gustavo Moya‐Raygoza, Ian C.W. Hardy

Abstract: Beneficial insects, such as natural enemies, are important to agro‐ecosystem functioning and thus agricultural production. Parasitoids and predators can provide sustainable long‐term solutions to pest problems (biological control), reducing the need for expensive and sometimes polluting pesticide applications. When several species of beneficial insects are present, their pest control actions may be additive, synergistic, or disruptive. One form of disruptive interaction between parasitoids and predators is dir…

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