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“…Although the composition of these deposits is very complex, it is well known that normal paraffins are major constituents, which precipitate from the bulk liquid phase as the crude oil cools down in the pipeline during transportation [2,3]. Preventive measures to minimize wax deposition problems involve heat insulation of subsea pipelines and the use of paraffin inhibitors [3,5,6].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The precipitation of solid deposits during the production and transportation of crude oils, especially from offshore reservoir facilities, represents a serious operational and economic issue [1,2,3,4]. Although the composition of these deposits is very complex, it is well known that normal paraffins are major constituents, which precipitate from the bulk liquid phase as the crude oil cools down in the pipeline during transportation [2,3].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…WAT is also called the cloud point [7,106]. Lately, some researchers have shown the advantage of calculating wax disappearance temperature (WDT) compared to WAT.…”
Section: Wat Determination (Astm Standard D5773-04 2005)mentioning
“…Paraffin deposition in hydrocarbon production systems is a major challenge for the development of oil and gas fields in cold environments or in deep waters [4][5][6] where nucleation and adhesion of the wax to the wall of the pipe occur [7]. Paraffin deposition in oil production is a critical problem that is difficult to control in terms of productivity and production operating costs.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…It will cause a lot of difficulties by blocking of transport equipments and pipelines. This can eventually decrease or in worst condition block the flow in the production line (Sanjay, Simantha, and Kulwant 1995;Merino-Garcia and Correra 2008;Al-Yaari 2011;Taraneh et al 2008;Alghanduri, et al 2010;Zhu, Walker, and Liang 2008;Elsharkawy, Al-Sahhaf, and Fahim 2000;Aiyejina et al 2011). The flowability of crude oil is determined by the viscosity/ surface tension of crude oil.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning