volume 169, issue 6, P508-518 2020
DOI: 10.1111/eea.13000
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Fawad Z. A. Khan, Shimat V. Joseph

Abstract: Lepidopteran pests such as fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (JE Smith), and black cutworm, Agrotis ipsilon Hufnagel (both Noctuidae), are serious problems of turfgrass (Poaceae) in the USA. Several predators in turfgrass systems attack lepidopteran larvae; however, their predaceous activity is rarely recorded, as they leave hardly any evidence. Predaceous activity can be studied using clay models, an approach still rarely employed in turfgrass. Thus, assays were conducted to determine the types of impressi…

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