Increasingly, scientific collections play a fundamental role in the conservation and analysis of biodiversity as a witness and repository of ecosystem organisms at risk of losing their species. The Invertebrate Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) safeguards biological information, mainly from the Amazon biome, one of the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the planet. Mantodea specimens deposited dry in the INPA Collection were reviewed. A total of 2,721 specimens were found deposited until the year 2019. A total of 194 species and 81 genera were found with representatives of all the neotropical and several "Old-World" families. Families such as Mantidae, Photinaidae, and Thespidae represented the highest percentages of specimens collected within the sample, with 30%, 11%, and 9%, respectively. Four genera and fourteen species are recorded for the first time for Brazil, bringing the number of species to 247. This officially makes Brazil the most diverse country in terms of Mantodea fauna on the planet. The Collection stands out for being the most diverse reported in Latin America, even with several species yet to be described. Presently it has seven primary type specimens and 26 secondary type specimens. The excellent state of conservation of the specimens, the number of specimens, and the diversity represented have made the INPA Collection an international benchmark for Amazonian and Neotropical studies on Mantodea.
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