2022
DOI: 10.3389/ftox.2022.883254
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Azole Fungicides and Their Endocrine Disrupting Properties: Perspectives on Sex Hormone-Dependent Reproductive Development

Abstract: Azoles are antifungal agents used in both agriculture and medicine. They typically target the CYP51 enzyme in fungi and, by so doing, disrupt cell membrane integrity. However, azoles can also target various CYP enzymes in mammals, including humans, which can disrupt hormone synthesis and signaling. For instance, several azoles can inhibit enzymes of the steroidogenic pathway and disrupt steroid hormone biosynthesis. This is of particular concern during pregnancy, since sex hormones are integral to reproductive… Show more

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Cited by 8 publications
(3 citation statements)
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References 81 publications
(128 reference statements)
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“…Research to date has demonstrated that the toxic effects of pesticides are manifested in different ways, from acute and sublethal effects to severe intoxication by chronic exposure to low doses. Evidence from several studies (reviewed by [ 30 , 31 ]) supports carcinogenicity [ 32 , 33 , 34 ], neurotoxicity [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ], endocrine and developmental disruption [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 ] and metabolic toxicity [ 46 , 47 , 48 ] as underlying pathogenic mechanisms of pesticides.…”
Section: Pesticides Disrupt the Integrity Of The Epithelial Barriersmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Research to date has demonstrated that the toxic effects of pesticides are manifested in different ways, from acute and sublethal effects to severe intoxication by chronic exposure to low doses. Evidence from several studies (reviewed by [ 30 , 31 ]) supports carcinogenicity [ 32 , 33 , 34 ], neurotoxicity [ 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 ], endocrine and developmental disruption [ 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 ] and metabolic toxicity [ 46 , 47 , 48 ] as underlying pathogenic mechanisms of pesticides.…”
Section: Pesticides Disrupt the Integrity Of The Epithelial Barriersmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In recent years, triazole fungicides have received a lot of attention due to reports that they may damage the endocrine system, including steroid hormones [ 6 , 7 ]. There are numerous potential mechanisms by which these fungicides could cause androgenic disruption [ 7 ].…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…In recent years, triazole fungicides have received a lot of attention due to reports that they may damage the endocrine system, including steroid hormones [ 6 , 7 ]. There are numerous potential mechanisms by which these fungicides could cause androgenic disruption [ 7 ]. Although many different pathways of triazole-induced endocrine-disrupting actions, such as oestrogen receptor and thyroid hormone receptor, have received attention, there is still a knowledge vacuum in these areas.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
confidence: 99%