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citations
Cited by 97 publications
(39 citation statements)
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References 21 publications
(32 reference statements)
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“…39 On a weight basis, the Pb:Cl ratio is 5.9:1 and the Pb:Br ratio is 2.6:1. Since reactions occur after the Pb is emitted releasing Cl and Br, the 1:1:1 molar ratio cannot be assumed in the atmosphere.…”
Section: Mass Balancementioning
confidence: 99%
“…39 On a weight basis, the Pb:Cl ratio is 5.9:1 and the Pb:Br ratio is 2.6:1. Since reactions occur after the Pb is emitted releasing Cl and Br, the 1:1:1 molar ratio cannot be assumed in the atmosphere.…”
Section: Mass Balancementioning
confidence: 99%
“…Over some period (depending upon the composition of the soil and the climate conditions), lead deposited on the soil from primary environmental sources is redistributed among various soil components [9]. As the lead becomes associated with soil phases such as the iron and manganese oxides and the clays [17], its original chemical identity, or fingerprint, will be lost. Automotive exhaust lead emitted as fine particles (0.01-1.5 Ìm) in the form of lead bromochloride (PbBrCl), when the scavengers 1,2-dichloroethane and 1,2-dibromoethane are present in gasoline, can readily be identified by SEM/EDS analysis [8].…”
Section: Discussionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Before the ban on sales of leaded gasoline, lead particles were emitted to the atmosphere from automobile exhaust as lead halides (mostly PbBrCl) and as double salts with ammonium halides (e.g., 2PbBrCl·NH 4 Cl, Pb 3 [PO 4 ] 2 , and PbSO 4 ) (Biggins and Harrison 1979;Ter Haar and Bayard 1971). After 18 hours, approximately 75% of the bromine and 30-40% of the chlorine was released, and lead carbonates, oxycarbonates and oxides were produced.…”
Section: Airmentioning
confidence: 99%