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“…The treatments were: negative control, without antimicrobials and anticoccidials; positive control -feed supplemented with 10 ppm enramycin and 42 ppm salinomycin; lemongrass -feed containing 120 mg of lemongrass essential oil for each kg -1 of animal body weight; L. rotundifolia -feed containing 120 mg of L. rotundifolia essential oil for each kg -1 of animal body weight; combination -feed with the mixture of the two essential oils. The dose used was defined from the antimicrobial activity presented by the essential oils of L. rotundifolia (Souza et al, 2015) and lemongrass (Azevedo et al, 2016) in preliminary in vitro tests.…”
Section: Methodsmentioning
“…According to Gomide et al (2013), the major component of its essential oil is β-myrcene. It also has proven antimicrobial activity (Souza et al, 2015). There are no reports in the literature of the use of these two species as additives in animal feed.…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…The high mortality rates found may be due to environmental conditions prior to incubation, or immersion time during the disinfectant application process. Egg contamination by bacteria occurs soon after posture (Wall et al, 2008), which can also lead to internal contamination of the egg by migration of bacteria from the surface of the eggshell (De Reu et al, 2006b), affecting incubation rates. The hatching rate may also have been affected by the egg handling conditions, egg storage (high temperatures) and storage time conditions in the poultry house, and the age of the birds, which were, on average, more than 100 weeks old.…”
Section: Cymbopogonmentioning
“…Several disinfectants and application methods are available on the market; however, their efficiency is questionable due to considerable resistance of the microorganisms, and egg losses due to contamination at the poultry houseand during the incubation process. Quaternary ammonia is one of the main commonly used disinfectants; it has high bactericidal potential and low toxicity (Grezzi, 2006;Spinosa et al, 2006). However, its action is considerably reduced in the presence of organic matter (Jaenisch et al, 2010).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning
“…Cymbopogon flexuosus (lemon grass) and Lippia rotundifolia (chá-de-pedestre) essential oils can be used as alternative performance enhancers due to their in vitro antimicrobial action, and they can promote diet stability (Assis et al, 2017;Azevedo et al, 2016;Souza et al, 2015). Cymbopogon flexuosus, also known as grass balm, is native to Asia (May et al, 2008).…”
Section: Introductionmentioning