2021
DOI: 10.1007/s11419-021-00596-5
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Alternative matrices in forensic toxicology: a critical review

Abstract: Purpose The use of alternative matrices in toxicological analyses has been on the rise in clinical and forensic settings. Specimens alternative to blood and urine are useful in providing additional information regarding drug exposure and analytical benefits. The goal of this paper is to present a critical review on the most recent literature regarding the application of six common alternative matrices, i.e., oral fluid, hair, sweat, meconium, breast milk and vitreous humor in forensic toxicology.… Show more

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Cited by 43 publications
(14 citation statements)
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(357 reference statements)
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“…Biological matrices such as sweat, hair and saliva are alternative samples for determining an individual's exposure to certain drugs or other chemicals. Their advantage is non-invasiveness, painless collection compared to blood collection, but due to the smaller number of published data, especially in terms of assessing the effects of physiological and psychological status, they still remain only alternative matrices in practice [42,45]. In the case of sweat and hair, the preference lies in the possibility of detecting certain drugs and medicines even after a longer period of time, in contrast to blood [46,47].…”
Section: Compoundmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…Biological matrices such as sweat, hair and saliva are alternative samples for determining an individual's exposure to certain drugs or other chemicals. Their advantage is non-invasiveness, painless collection compared to blood collection, but due to the smaller number of published data, especially in terms of assessing the effects of physiological and psychological status, they still remain only alternative matrices in practice [42,45]. In the case of sweat and hair, the preference lies in the possibility of detecting certain drugs and medicines even after a longer period of time, in contrast to blood [46,47].…”
Section: Compoundmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…On the other hand, this matrix can be variable, being influenced by factors such as circadian rhythm, age, gender, and health, among others. From an analytical perspective, the sample volume is generally limited, and analytes may be present in low amounts, requiring highly sensitive detection methods (de Campos et al 2021 ). Additionally, hair analysis can be used to detect the presence of drugs and some metabolites.…”
Section: Sample Preparation and Extractionmentioning
confidence: 99%
“…While it is still unclear exactly how drugs are incorporated into the hair, it is generally accepted that it involves passive diffusion through blood capillaries to the base of the hair follicle (Mantinieks et al 2018 ). Similar to oral fluid, the collection of hair samples is easy and non-invasive and can help provide a timeline of drug use through segmental analysis; however, the detection of recent drug use (within approximately 7 days) is not possible (de Campos et al 2021 ).…”
Section: Sample Preparation and Extractionmentioning
confidence: 99%
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