Abstract:Dendropsophus nanus was described from Resistencia, Argentina. The species distribution is widespread in South America east of the Andes. Despite its wide distribution, little information about its advertisement call is available in the literature. Call descriptions from type localities are especially important for the resolution of taxonomic issues, as well as for intraspecific comparisons. Herein we describe the advertisement and the male courtship calls of D. nanus from its type locality. The advertisement … Show more
One of the many taxonomic challenges found in the Dendropsophus microcephalus species group is the Dendropsophus walfordi distinction from D. nanus. Recent phylogenetic inferences have indicated the paraphyly of these species, although they were not designed to assess this issue. To contribute to the delimitation of these species, we analyzed the 12S, 16S and COI mitochondrial genes, the morphological traits, and the advertisement calls of specimens from northern Amazonia to Argentina, including the type localities of D. nanus and D. walfordi. Paraphyly of D. nanus with respect to D. walfordi was inferred by maximum-parsimony and Bayesian analyses, and five major clades exhibiting nonoverlapping geographic distributions were recognized. The bPTP and ABGD analyses supported the existence of five independently evolving lineages in this complex. Acoustic and morphological data clearly distinguished the clade that included the topotypes of D. walfordi from the others, corroborating the validity of this species. To avoid the paraphyly of D. nanus with respect to D. walfordi, we recognize the clade distributed from central-southern Brazil to Argentina as D. nanus, the clade distributed in Amazonia as D. walfordi, and discuss the existence of unnamed cryptic species closely related to D. nanus and D. walfordi.
Recent studies have shown that species diversity of the South American frog genus Dendropsophus is significantly underestimated, especially in Amazonia. Herein, through integrative taxonomy a new species of Dendropsophus from the east bank of the upper Madeira River, Brazil is described. Based on molecular phylogenetic and morphological analyses, the new species is referred to the D. microcephalus species group, where it is differentiated from its congeners mainly by having a green bilobate vocal sac and an advertisement call comprising 1–4 monophasic notes emitted with a dominant frequency of 8,979–9,606 Hz. Based on intensive sampling conducted in the study area over the last ten years, the new species is restricted to the east bank of the upper Madeira River, although its geographic range is expected to include Bolivian forests close to the type locality.
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