The current pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presented unprecedented challenges to the healthcare systems in almost every country around the world. Currently, there are no proven effective vaccines or therapeutic agents against the virus. Current clinical management includes infection prevention and control measures and supportive care including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilatory support. Evolving research and clinical data regarding the virologic SARS-CoV-2 suggest a potential list of repurposed drugs with appropriate pharmacological effects and therapeutic efficacies in treating COVID-19 patients. In this review, we will update and summarize the most common and plausible drugs for the treatment of COVID-19 patients. These drugs and therapeutic agents include antiviral agents (remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine, lopinavir, umifenovir, favipiravir, and oseltamivir), and supporting agents (Ascorbic acid, Azithromycin, Corticosteroids, Nitric oxide, IL-6 antagonists), among others. We hope that this review will provide useful and most updated therapeutic drugs to prevent, control, and treat COVID-19 patients until the approval of vaccines and specific drugs targeting SARS-CoV-2.
There is growing appreciation of the functional relevance of unfolded proteins in biology. However, unfolded states of proteins have proven inaccessible to the usual techniques for high-resolution structural and energetic characterization. Unfolded states are still generally conceived of as statistical coils, based on the pioneering work of Flory [(1969 T he process by which a protein acquires its native structure is among the most complex reactions known, and challenges remain in defining the nature of the transition state(s), the structure and role of intermediates, and the properties of the starting ensemble of states (1-4). According to Flory (5) and Tanford (6), unfolded proteins can be represented as statistical random coils, in which a given residue has no strong preference for any specific conformation. Confirming earlier conclusions by Tiffany and Krimm (7-9), recent evidence from a variety of spectroscopic probes (10-22), theoretical studies (23-34), and coil library surveys (35-43) consistently point to a major role for the polyproline II (PPII, ⌽ ϭ Ϫ75°, ⌿ ϭ ϩ145°) conformation in oligo-Ala (for review, see ref. 3 and related articles in the same volume), oligo-Lys, and oligo-Glu peptides (44). We have reported that in a seven-Ala peptide model PPII converts to a ␤-like structure with increasing temperature (13). These findings raise several important questions regarding the structure of unfolded proteins: Although alanine is arguably a reasonable model for the unperturbed peptide backbone, is PPII also present in unfolded peptide chains composed of nonalanine nonproline residues? Is there an intrinsic PPII propensity for each individual side chain? If PPII is in equilibrium with ␤-structure, is there a correlation between scales of PPII propensity and analogous ␤-sheet scales? To what extent is PPII sequence and context dependent?Here, we address these questions by analyzing a series of end-blocked host pentapeptides AcGGXGGNH 2 , where X denotes 19 natural amino acids except glycine. Members of the series are found to differ in their extent of PPII conformation as determined by NMR and CD spectroscopy. Our results lead to the following conclusions: PPII is present as a dominant conformation in the majority of AcGGXGGNH 2 peptides. Different side chains show distinct propensities to adopt PPII in these unfolded molecules. Importantly, we find an inverse correlation between the determined PPII scale and the ␤-sheet-forming propensities derived from a zinc-finger model system (45) when 18 aa (except Gly and Pro) are divided into two groups: one, the nonpolar ␤-branched and bulky aromatic residues (VIWFY) and the other all of the remaining side chains. Finally, we find a correlation between our PPII scale in AcGGXGGNH 2 and a PPII scale derived from alternative model peptides such as AcPPPXPPPGYNH 2 (46). Still there are indications that the PPII scale is likely to be sequence and context dependent (47).
Materials and MethodsPeptides Synthesis and Purification. Peptides were assembled on Rink Amide res...
Potassium‐ion batteries (PIBs) have attracted considerable attention due to the low redox potential, low price, and abundance, in comparison to lithium and sodium. Herein, a novel potassium MoSe2/N‐C battery with a new electrolyte, 1 m potassium bis(fluoro‐slufonyl)imide in ethyl methyl carbonate, is reported. The MoSe2/N‐C composite, which consists of carbon‐coated MoSe2 nanosheets, is synthesized through solvothermal and annealing method. As an anode material for PIBs, it exhibits an outstanding rate performance and long cycling stability. Meanwhile, a reversible capacity of 258.02 mA h g−1 is achieved after 300 cycles at 100 mA g−1, obtaining a Coulombic efficiency close to 100%. Even at a high current density, it can maintain 218 and 197 mA h g−1 at 500 and 1000 mA g−1, respectively. The charge/discharge mechanism of MoSe2/N‐C as the anode material for PIBs is investigated. These results reveal that the insertion and the extraction of K+ will lead to a phase transition of MoSe2. During the charge process, a part of the MoSe2 will transform to Mo15Se19 and the major final discharge product is K5Se3.
Cognitive decline is one of the complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Intermittent fasting (IF) is a promising dietary intervention for alleviating T2D symptoms, but its protective effect on diabetes-driven cognitive dysfunction remains elusive. Here, we find that a 28-day IF regimen for diabetic mice improves behavioral impairment via a microbiota-metabolites-brain axis: IF enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism gene expression in hippocampus, restructures the gut microbiota, and improves microbial metabolites that are related to cognitive function. Moreover, strong connections are observed between IF affected genes, microbiota and metabolites, as assessed by integrative modelling. Removing gut microbiota with antibiotics partly abolishes the neuroprotective effects of IF. Administration of 3-indolepropionic acid, serotonin, short chain fatty acids or tauroursodeoxycholic acid shows a similar effect to IF in terms of improving cognitive function. Together, our study purports the microbiota-metabolites-brain axis as a mechanism that can enable therapeutic strategies against metabolism-implicated cognitive pathophysiologies.
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