An account of the taxonomy of the genus Potamogeton L. with special reference to species description and delimitation is presented. A key to the species is given, based as far as possible on vegetative characters. Detailed descriptions are provided for a total of 69 species which are regarded as sufficiently well known. Special emphasis is laid both on a complete list of relevant characters as well as on the judgement of their respective diagnostic values. All important synonyms are listed allowing direct access to most of the relevant taxonomic and floristic Potamogeton literature. 50 confirmed hybrids are listed and assigned to their putative parent species. Questions with respect to the taxa listed are formulated in notes on each of the species. A more general view and questions on future Potamogeton research are summarized in the conclusions."It is to be regretted that we never arrive to the truth but through some mistake or another" (J. O. Hagstrrm 1916)
A taxonomic revision of the Asian species of Stuckenia, a segregate of Potamogeton, is presented. Six species are recognized and their morphological descriptions, nomenclature and typification of relevant names are given. Distributions of all species are described and lists of representative specimens and distribution maps provided. Lectotypes are designated for 24 names and nomenclatural types are listed for 22 additional names. The correct name for the species known as Potamogeton recurvatus is Stuckenia pamirica (Baagöe) Z. Kaplan, comb. nova. Morphological variation at different levels within the genus is described and compared with different concepts of its taxonomic interpretation. Instructions on examination of key characters are given, together with a key to species. Colour photographs illustrate the general appearance of species as well as many identification details. The pattern of variation and taxonomic validity of the Siberian morphotypes S. subretusa and S. austrosibirica are analyzed. The plasticity of diagnostic characters of P. juncifolius and of P. helveticus from the European Alps, the infraspecific classification of S. filiformis in North America, and the taxonomic status of S. punensis described from Peru are also discussed.
2018): Distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic. Part 7. -Preslia 90: 425-531.The seventh part of the series on the distributions of vascular plants in the Czech Republic includes grid maps of 104 taxa in the genera Anthriscus, These maps were produced by taxonomic experts based on examined herbarium specimens, literature and field records. Many of the studied native species are on the national Red List. The genus most affected by decline in abundance is Gentianella, which includes six taxa extirpated from this country and six taxa critically threatened. Another group with a high proportion of endangered species comprises aquatic and wetland plants, which are represented by Callitriche hermaphroditica, Hydrocharis morsusranae, Najas minor, Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum and Stratiotes aloides. Other ecologically specialized groups include mainly montane wetland plants (Epilobium anagallidifolium, E. nutans and Rubus chamaemorus) and plants of rocky habitats (Polypodium interjectum, Trichomanes speciosum and Woodsia ilvensis). The previously rare Woodsia alpina has been extirpated from this country. Alien species mapped in this paper include both archaeophytes and neophytes, mainly from the genera Anthriscus, Cochlearia, Elodea, Epilobium, Hordeum and Phleum. Cochlearia danica, Dittrichia graveolens and Limonium gmelinii have recently colonized habitats along the roads treated by de-icing salt. Senecio inaequidens has also spread mainly along motorways. Epilobium adenocaulon is another successful neophyte; it is now widespread throughout this country and the most successful hybrid parent within the genus. Neophyte aquatics are represented by Egeria densa, Elodea canadensis and E. nuttallii. Spatial distributions and often also temporal dynamics of individual taxa are shown in maps and documented by records included in the Pladias database and available in electronic appendices. The maps are accompanied by comments that include additional information on the distribution, habitats, taxonomy and biology of the taxa. K e y w o r d s:
The Pladias (Plant Diversity Analysis and Synthesis) Database of the Czech Flora and Vegetation was developed by the Pladias project team in 2014-2018 and has been continuously updated since then. The flora section of the database contains critically revised information on the Czech vascular flora, including 13.6 million plant occurrence records, which are dynamically displayed in maps, and data on 120 plant characteristics (traits, environmental associations and other information), divided into the sections: (1) Habitus and growth type, (2) Leaf, (3) Flower, (4) Fruit, seed and dispersal, (5) Belowground organs and clonality, (6) Trophic mode, (7) Karyology, (8) Taxon origin, (9) Ecological indicator values, (10) Habitat and sociology, (11) Distribution and frequency, and (12) Threats and protection. The vegetation section of the database contains information on Czech vegetation types extracted from the monograph Vegetation of the Czech Republic. The data are supplemented by national botanical bibliographies, electronic versions of the standard national flora and vegetation monographs, a database of more than 19,000 pictures of plant taxa and vegetation types, and digital maps (shapefiles) with botanical information. The data from the database are available online on a public portal www.pladias.cz, which also provides download options for various datasets and online identification keys to the species and vegetation types of the Czech Republic. In this paper, we describe the general scope, structure and content of the database, and details of the data on plant characteristics. To illustrate the data and describe the main geographic patterns in selected plant characteristics, we provide maps of mean values of numerical characteristics or proportions of categories for categorical characteristics on the map of the country in a grid of 5 longitudinal × 3 latitudinal minutes (approximately 6.0 km × 5.5 km). We also summarize the main variation patterns in the functional traits in the Czech flora using the principal component analysis.
Research on the Czech flora has a long tradition and yielded a large number of records on the occurrence of plants. Several independent electronic databases were established during the last three decades in order to collect and manage these records. However, this fragmentation and the different characteristics of each database strongly limit the utilization and analyses of plant distribution data. Solving these problems was one of the aims of the Centre of Excellence PLADIAS (Plant Diversity Analysis and Synthesis, 2014-2018), which is also the source of the name of the central database of the project: Pladias-Database of the Czech Flora and Vegetation (www.pladias.cz). We developed an occurrence module as a part of the Pladias database in order to integrate species occurrence data on vascular plants in the Czech Republic for use in pure and applied research. In this paper, we present a description of the structure of this database, data handling and validation, creation of distribution maps based on critically evaluated records as well as descriptions of the original databases and explorative analyses of spatiotemporal and taxonomic coverage of the integrated occurrence data. So far we have integrated more than 13 million records of almost 5 thousand taxa (species, subspecies, varieties and hybrids), which came from five large national databases, seven regional projects and records collected within the PLADIAS project. The Pladias database is now the largest set of data on vascular plant occurrence in the Czech Republic, which is subject to continuous quality control. Analyses of this database pointed
Despite their complex evolutionary histories, aquatic plants are highly underrepresented in contemporary biosystematic studies. Of them, the genus Callitriche is particularly interesting because of such evolutionary features as wide variation in chromosome numbers and pollination systems. However, taxonomic difficulties have prevented broader investigation of this genus. In this study we applied flow cytometry to Callitriche for the first time in order to gain an insight into evolutionary processes and genome size differentiation in the genus. Flow cytometry complemented by confirmation of chromosome counts was applied to an extensive dataset of 1077 Callitriche individuals from 495 localities in 11 European countries and the USA. Genome size was determined for 12 taxa. The results suggest that many important processes have interacted in the evolution of the genus, including polyploidization and hybridization. Incongruence between genome size and ploidy level, intraspecific variation in genome size, formation of autotriploid and hybridization between species with different pollination systems were also detected. Hybridization takes place particularly in the diploid – tetraploid complex C. cophocarpa – C. platycarpa, for which the triploid hybrids were frequently recorded in the area of co-occurrence of its parents. A hitherto unknown hybrid (probably C. hamulata × C. cophocarpa) with a unique chromosome number was discovered in the Czech Republic. However, hybridization occurs very rarely among most of the studied species. The main ecological preferences were also compared among the taxa collected. Although Callitriche taxa often grow in mixed populations, the ecological preferences of individual species are distinctly different in some cases. Anyway, flow cytometry is a very efficient method for taxonomic delimitation, determination and investigation of Callitriche species, and is even able to distinguish homoploid taxa and identify introduced species.
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