Abstract:Recently, erythropoietin (EPO) receptors and synthesis of EPO have been identified in the brain. To clarify the effects of EPO on neuronal cells, we investigated the effects of EPO on Ca 2ϩ uptake, intracellular Ca 2ϩ concentration, membrane potential, cell survival, release and biosynthesis of dopamine, and nitric oxide (NO) production in differentiated PC12 cells, which possess EPO receptors. EPO (10 Ϫ12 -10 Ϫ10 M) increased 45 Ca 2ϩ uptake and intracellular Ca 2ϩ concentration in PC12 cells in a dose-related manner; these increases were inhibited by nicardipine (1 M) or anti-EPO antibody (1:100 dilution). EPO induced membrane depolarization in PC12 cells. After a 5-day culture without serum and nerve growth factor (NGF), viable cell number decreased to 50% of that of the control cells cultured with serum and NGF. EPO (10 Ϫ13 -10 Ϫ10 M) increased the number of viable cells cultured without serum and NGF; this increase was blunted by nicardipine or anti-EPO antibody. Incubation with EPO (10 Ϫ13 -10 Ϫ10 M) stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in PC12 cells. EPO (10 Ϫ13 -10 Ϫ10 M) increased dopamine release from PC12 cells and tyrosine hydroxylase activity; these increases were sensitive to nicardipine or anti-EPO antibody. Following a 4-h incubation with EPO (10 Ϫ14 -10 Ϫ10 M), NO production was increased, which was blunted by nicardipine and anti-EPO antibody. In contrast, maximal NO synthase activity was not changed by EPO. These results suggest that EPO stimulates neuronal function and viability via activation of Ca 2ϩ channels. Key Words: Erythropoietin-PC12 cells-Ca 2ϩ channels-Cell survivalDopamine release -Nitric oxide.
Synthetic vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) administered either intraventricularly or iv caused a significant and dose-related increase in plasma PRL levels in urethane-anesthetized rats. The administration of naloxone, an opiate receptor antagonist, significantly blunted the plasma PRL response to VIP. Increases in plasma PRL induced by VIP were also significantly suppressed by L-dopa, a precursor of dopamine, whereas pilocarpine, a cholinergic agonist, diphenhydramine, a histamine antagonist, and cyproheptadine, an antiserotoninergic agent, did not affect the plasma PRL response to VIP. In in vitro experiments, VIP alone did not stimulate PRL release from cultured pituitary cells, but it significantly attenuated the inhibitory action of dopamine, which was not blocked by naloxone. These results suggest that VIP stimulates rat PRL secretion, at least in part, through activation of an opiate receptor in the central nervous system and by blocking the inhibitory action of a dopaminergic mechanism at the pituitary level.
The effect of thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH) on plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), thyrotrophin (TSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH), were studied in patients with anorexia nervosa. The basal plasma GH levels were elevated in 6 of 11 patients studied. Intravenous injection of synthetic TRH (500 μg) significantly raised the plasma GH levels in 9 of 11 patients. The peak values of plasma GH after TRH ranged from 6.0 to 31.5 ng/ml. Plasma GH concentrations also increased following the administration of synthetic LH-RH (100μg) in 1 of 7 patients. The intravenous injection of saline solution caused no significant change in plasma GH in these patients. The plasma LH responses to LH-RH were significantly blunted in all patients, whereas the plasma PRL and TSH responses to TRH were almost normal in the patients examined. These results suggest that the hypothalamo-pituitary function regulating GH and LH secretion is altered in patients with anorexia nervosa.
A B S TRA CT In order to determine whether an adrenergic mechanism is involved in the secretion of growth hormone and insulin, the effect of adrenergic-blocking or -stimulating agents on plasma human growth hormone (HGH), immunoreactive insulin, blood free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose levels was studied in normal human subjects.The intravenous infusion of propranolol, a beta adrenergic-blocking agent, caused a rise in plasma HGH, a transient decrease in blood FFA, and no significant change in plasma insulin. This increase in plasma HGH was inhibited either by the combined administration of isoproterenol, a beta adrenergic-stimulating agent, along with propranolol or by oral glucose loading immediately before the start of propranolol infusion. The concomitant administration of epinephrine and propranolol brought about a rise in plasma HGH comparable with that produced by propranolol alone, without any significant change in blood FFA. Alpha adrenergic blockade by the intravenous infusion of phenotolamine significantly suppressed plasma HGH responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia and to arginine infusion, and enhanced plasma insulin response to arginine infusion. It also stimulated lipid mobilization significantly.The intravenous infusion of alpha adrenergic-stimulating agents, phenylephrine and methoxamine, caused an increase in plasma HGH, a slight decrease in blood FFA, and no significant change in plasma insulin. This increase in plasma HGH was significantly inhibited by the simultaneous administration of phentolamine along This work was presented at the Third International Congress of Endocrinology, Mexico City, Mexico, July 1968. A portion of this study was published as a preliminary communication in 1968.
Objective: Several reports have described antipituitary antibodies by immunofluorescent or immunoblotting methods in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis. However, with the exception of the pituitary hormones, individual antigens specific for the pituitary gland have not been studied. To understand the pathogenesis of lymphocytic hypophysitis and to diagnose this disease efficiently, we studied the presence of autoantibodies against three pituitary-specific proteins, GH and two novel pituitary-specific proteins, namely, pituitary gland specific factor 1a (PGSF1a) and PGSF2. Design: Seventeen patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis, all of whom had pituitary enlargement (5 with lymphocytic adenohypophysitis and 12 with lymphocytic infundibuloneurohypophysitis, including 3 of the latter group proven by biopsy), and 14 patients with hypopituitarism without pituitary enlargement (10 with isolated ACTH deficiency and 4 with idiopathic TSH deficiency) were studied, and compared with 11 patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma, 31 patients with other autoimmune diseases, and 36 healthy controls. Methods: The presence of each antibody was studied by radioligand assay using recombinant human 35 S-labeled protein.Results: Three (18%) patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis having pituitary enlargement, five (36%) patients with hypopituitarism without pituitary enlargement and three (9.7%) patients with other autoimmune diseases were positive for one or more of the antibodies studied. Conclusions: Anti-human GH, anti-PGSF1a, and anti-PGSF2 antibodies were detected in patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis and other hypopituitarism, but were not detected in patients with non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma. Detection of these antibodies may be useful for the diagnosis of lymphocytic hypophysitis.
The mechanisms by which central or systemic administration of galanin stimulates GH secretion were investigated in either conscious or urethane-anesthetized male rats. Intracerebroventricular injection of synthetic porcine galanin, a 29-amino acid gut-brain peptide (0.12, 0.6, and 3 nmol/rat), resulted in a dose-related increase in plasma GH. The plasma GH level was increased by an N-terminal galanin fragment [galanin-(1-19)], but not by C-terminal fragments [galanin-(2-29) and -(21-29)]. Intravenous injection or infusion of galanin (0.6 and 3 nmol/100 g BW) also raised plasma GH. The plasma GH increase induced by galanin was inhibited by pretreatment with rabbit antiserum specific for rat GRF. Pretreatment with yohimbine or phenoxybenzamine, alpha-adrenergic blockers, or picrotoxin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, blunted the plasma GH increase induced by intracerebroventricular injection of galanin. On the other hand, the plasma GH increase induced by iv injection of galanin was suppressed by picrotoxin, but not by phenoxybenzamine. These findings suggest that 1) both central and systemic administration of galanin stimulate GH secretion in the rat; 2) the N-terminal structure of galanin is required to stimulate GH secretion; 3) the stimulating effect of galanin is mediated, at least in part, by hypothalamic GRF; and 4) central alpha-adrenergic and GABAergic mechanisms may be involved in GH release induced by central administration of galanin, whereas systemic injection of galanin stimulates GH release predominantly through GABAergic mechanisms in the rat.
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