Periodontal disease is categorized by the destruction of periodontal tissues. Over the years, there have been several clinical techniques and material options that been investigated for periodontal defect repair/regeneration. The development of improved biomaterials for periodontal tissue engineering has significantly improved the available treatment options and their clinical results. Bone replacement graft materials, barrier membranes, various growth factors and combination of these have been used. The available bone tissue replacement materials commonly used include autografts, allografts, xenografts and alloplasts. These graft materials mostly function as osteogenic, osteoinductive and/or osteoconductive scaffolds. Polymers (natural and synthetic) are more widely used as a barrier material in guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and guided bone regeneration (GBR) applications. They work on the principle of epithelial cell exclusion to allow periodontal ligament and alveolar bone cells to repopulate the defect before the normally faster epithelial cells. However, in an attempt to overcome complications related to the epithelial down-growth and/or collapse of the non-rigid barrier membrane and to maintain space, clinicians commonly use a combination of membranes with hard tissue grafts. This article aims to review various available natural tissues and biomaterial based bone replacement graft and membrane options used in periodontal regeneration applications.
Certain cell populations within periodontal tissues possess the ability to induce regeneration, provided they have the opportunity to populate the wound or defect. Guided regeneration techniques have been investigated for regenerating periodontal tissues and such therapies usually utilize barrier membranes. Various natural and synthetic barrier membranes have been fabricated and tested to prevent epithelial and connective tissue cells from invading while allowing periodontal cells to selectively migrate into the defect. This paper focuses on the literature relevant to the use and potential of resorbable collagen membranes in GBR procedures, sites of periodontal and intrabony defects, in cases of socket and alveolar ridge preservation and at implant sites. The results of their use in GBR procedures has shown them to be effective and comparable with non-resorbable membranes with regards to clinical attachment gain, probing depth reduction and defect bone filling. They have also shown to prevent epithelial ingrowth into the defect space during the initial wound healing phase postsurgically. Collagen membranes have also been used for root coverage and GBR procedures and have shown good success rates comparable to subepithelial connective tissue grafts and expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membranes. The future for periodontal tissue engineering is very exciting with the use of barrier membranes expected to continue playing a critical role. However, long-term clinical trials are required to further evaluate and confirm the efficacy of the available collagen barrier membranes for periodontal and bone regeneration use.
Treatment with MSE in EP actually caused healing of bone, and these effects are probably related to decreases in local oxidative damage and osteoclast activity. Given MSE's positive effects on osteodifferentiation as well, these findings suggest that MSE could be a useful therapeutic agent for the management of periodontitis.
Background High levels of periodontopathic bacteria as well as Streptococcus anginosus were detected in cancer tissue from patients with esophageal cancer. An association between oral infectious bacteria and esophageal cancer has been reported. Methods Characteristics of the oral microbiota and periodontal conditions were studied as clinicopathologic factors in patients with esophageal cancer. The study included 61 patients with esophageal cancer and 62 matched individuals without any cancers. Samples of subgingival dental plaque and unstimulated saliva were collected to evaluate the prevalence and abundance of the following oral bacteria using a real‐time polymerase chain reaction assay: Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Tannerella forsythia, Treponema denticola, and S. anginosus. Results In the cancer group, the prevalence of all bacteria, with the exception of F. nucleatum, in dental plaque; the prevalence of A. actinomycetemcomitans in saliva; the abundance of all bacteria, with the exception of F. nucleatum and P. intermedia, in dental plaque; and the abundance of A. actinomycetemcomitans and S. anginosus in saliva were significantly higher. Furthermore, a logistic regression analysis suggested that the prevalence of T. forsythia and S. anginosus in dental plaque and of A. actinomycetemcomitans in saliva, as well as a drinking habit, were associated with a high risk of esophageal cancer, with a high odds ratio. Conclusions The current findings have potential implications for the early diagnosis of esophageal cancer.
Background Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, leading to bone destruction and tooth loss. Screening for periodontitis is important in preventing the progress of this disease. Various types of bacteria have been examined as potential screening targets, but only culturable pathogenic bacteria have been considered candidates. Recently, the various uncultivable bacteria have been identified in microbiome studies, but the value of these bacteria in periodontitis screening remains unknown. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic use of uncultivable bacteria Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 and TM7 sp. HOT 356 for periodontitis screening in the Japanese population. Material and methods Stimulated saliva samples were collected from 217 participants (periodontitis group, n = 157; healthy group, n = 60). The two uncultivable bacterial species selected were: Fretibacterium sp. human oral taxon 360 ( Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360) and TM7 sp. human oral taxon 356 ( TM7 sp. HOT 356). The levels of these two bacterial species were compared with those of Porphyromonas gingivalis ( P . gingivalis ), a keystone pathogen in periodontitis. These three species of bacteria were then quantified using qualitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with specific primers and Taqman probes. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 20.0 software. P value was statistically significant at .05. Results The populations of uncultivable bacterial species TM7 sp. HOT 356 and Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 were significantly higher in periodontitis group than in healthy group. Only Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 showed a significantly positive correlation with such periodontal parameters as probing pocket depth (PPD) and bleeding on probing (BOP). Conclusion These findings indicate that uncultivable bacteria Fretibacterium sp. HOT 360 can be used as a saliva-based diagnostic bacterial biomarker for periodontitis screening.
Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacteria. Monocytes and macrophages stimulated by periodontopathic bacteria induce inflammatory mediators that cause tooth-supporting structure destruction and alveolar bone resorption. In this study, using a DNA microarray, we identified the enhanced gene expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) in human monocytic cells stimulated by Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TSP-1 is a multifunctional extracellular matrix protein that is upregulated during the inflammatory process. Recent studies have suggested that TSP-1 is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and osteoclastogenesis. TSP-1 is secreted from neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, which mediate immune responses at inflammatory regions. However, TSP-1 expression in periodontitis and the mechanisms underlying TSP-1 expression in human monocytic cells remain unknown. Here using real-time RT-PCR, we demonstrated that TSP-1 mRNA expression level was significantly upregulated in inflamed periodontitis gingival tissues and in P. gingivalis LPS-stimulated human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells. TSP-1 was expressed via Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 pathways. In P. gingivalis LPS stimulation, TSP-1 expression was dependent upon TLR2 through the activation of NF-κB signaling. Furthermore, IL-17F synergistically enhanced P. gingivalis LPS-induced TSP-1 production. These results suggest that modulation of TSP-1 expression by P. gingivalis plays an important role in the progression and chronicity of periodontitis. It may also contribute a new target molecule for periodontal therapy.
This large-scale study cross-sectionally examined the periodontal status and prevalence of "red complex" bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythia) in Japanese adults. A total of 977 participants were enrolled in the study. Probing depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and bone crest level (BCL) were recorded, and the presence of red complex bacteria in the saliva was examined using polymerase chain reaction. The mean BCL value and the percentage of sites with a PD ≥4 mm or the presence of BOP were significantly higher in older participants. The detection rates of P. gingivalis, T. denticola, and T. forsythia were 46.3%, 76.4%, and 61.1%, respectively. The P. gingivalis detection rate significantly increased with age, while those of T. denticola and T. forsythia were comparably high for all age groups. A close correlation between P. gingivalis and the percentage of sites with PD ≥4 mm was indicated by nonlinear canonical correlation analysis. Current smokers exhibited a more advanced disease condition and a significantly higher P. gingivalis detection rate than non-smokers. In conclusion, periodontal condition worsens with age, and P. gingivalis appears to be the red complex bacterium most closely associated with periodontitis.
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