Dual-layer differential codebook using 8-PSK (phase shift keying) constellation as its codeword elements, is proposed for Long term evolution (LTE) and/or LTE-Advanced systems. Due to the temporal correlation of the adjacent channel matrices, the consecutive precoding matrices are likely to be similar. This approach quantize only the differential information of the channel instead of the whole channel subspace, which virtually increase the codebook size to realize more accurate quantization of the channel. Especially, the proposed codebook has the same properties of LTE release-8 codebook that is, constant modulus, complexity reduction, and nested property.The mobile station can be designed by using less expensive non-linear amplifier utilizing constant modulus property. Computer simulations show that the capacity of the proposed dual-layer codebook performs almost 1.2dB better than those of any other non-differential codebooks with the same amount of feedback information.
ICT-based on-board oriented train control system has been proposed to improve operation efficiency in low-density railway line. It is also needed to develop a new ICT-based local control center which relates to existing centralized traffic control lines. In order to meet the qualitative target of these developing system, RAMS activities are required. In this paper, through preliminary hazard analysis, hazards and their contributing factors are addressed, then countermeasures are established to control the risk to an acceptable level.
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