CD36, also known as the scavenger receptor B2, is a multifunctional receptor widely expressed in various organs. CD36 plays a crucial role in the uptake of long-chain fatty acids, the main metabolic substrate in myocardial tissue. The maturation and transportation of CD36 is regulated by post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation, and palmitoylation. CD36 is decreased in pathological cardiac hypertrophy caused by ischemia-reperfusion and pressure overload, and increased in diabetic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis. Deficiency of CD36 alleviates diabetic cardiomyopathy and atherosclerosis, while overexpression of CD36 eliminates ischemia-reperfusion damage, together suggesting that CD36 is closely associated with the progression of cardiovascular diseases and may be a new therapeutic target. This review summarizes the regulation and post-translational modifications of CD36 and evaluates its role in cardiovascular diseases and its potential as a therapeutic target.
Heart failure is a systemic syndrome caused by multiple pathological factors. Current treatments do not have satisfactory outcomes. Several basic studies have revealed the protective effect of trimetazidine on the heart, not only by metabolism modulation but also by relieving myocardial apoptosis, fibrosis, autophagy, and inflammation. Clinical studies have consistently indicated that trimetazidine acts as an adjunct to conventional treatments and improves the symptoms of heart failure. This review summarizes the basic pathological changes in the myocardium, with an emphasis on the alteration of cardiac metabolism in the development of heart failure. The clinical application of trimetazidine in heart failure and the mechanism of its protective effects on the myocardium are carefully discussed, as well as its main adverse effects. The intention of this review is to highlight this treatment as an effective alternative against heart failure and provide additional perspectives for future studies.
Energic deficiency of cardiomyocytes is a dominant cause of heart failure. An antianginal agent, trimetazidine improves the myocardial energetic supply. We presumed that trimetazidine protects the cardiomyocytes from the pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving the myocardial metabolism. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 4 weeks of TAC, heart failure was observed in mice manifested by an increased left ventricular (LV) chamber dimension, an impaired LV ejection fraction evaluated by echocardiography analysis, which were significantly restrained by the treatment of trimetazidine. Trimetazidine restored the mitochondrial morphology and function tested by cardiac transmission electron microscope and mitochondrial dynamic proteins analysis. Positron emission tomography showed that trimetazidine significantly elevated the glucose uptake in TAC mouse heart. Trimetazidine restrained the impairments of the insulin signaling in TAC mice and promoted the translocation of glucose transporter type IV (GLUT4) from the storage vesicle to membrane. However, these cardioprotective effects of trimetazidine in TAC mice were notably abolished by compound C (C.C), a specific AMPK inhibitor. The enlargement of neonatal rat cardiomyocyte induced by mechanical stretch, together with the increased expression of hypertrophy-associated proteins, mitochondria deformation and dysfunction were significantly ameliorated by trimetazidine. Trimetazidine enhanced the isolated cardiomyocyte glucose uptake in vitro. These benefits brought by trimetazidine were also removed with the presence of C.C. In conclusion, trimetazidine attenuated pressure overload-induced heart failure through improving myocardial mitochondrial function and glucose uptake via AMPK.
Valosin-containing protein (VCP/p97) is a member of the conserved type II AAA+ (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) family of proteins with multiple biological functions, especially in protein homeostasis. Mutations in VCP/p97 are reportedly related to unique autosomal dominant diseases, which may worsen cardiac function. Although the structure of VCP/p97 has been clearly characterized, with reports of high abundance in the heart, research focusing on the molecular mechanisms underpinning the roles of VCP/p97 in the cardiovascular system has been recently undertaken over the past decades. Recent studies have shown that VCP/p97 deficiency affects myocardial fibers and induces heart failure, while overexpression of VCP/p97 eliminates ischemia/reperfusion injury and relieves pathological cardiac hypertrophy caused by cardiac pressure overload, which is related to changes in the mitochondria and calcium overload. However, certain studies have drawn opposing conclusions, including the mitigation of ischemia/reperfusion injury via inhibition of VCP/p97 ATPase activity. Nevertheless, these emerging studies shed light on the role of VCP/p97 and its therapeutic potential in cardiovascular diseases. In other words, VCP/p97 may be involved in the development of cardiovascular disease, and is anticipated to be a new therapeutic target. This review summarizes current findings regarding VCP/p97 in the cardiovascular system for the first time, and discusses the role of VCP/p97 in cardiovascular disease.
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