In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the 'Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper; explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas; and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are fastest computers in nature.
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process to catabolize cytoplasmic proteins and organelles1, 2. During starvation, the target of rapamycin (TOR), a nutrient-responsive kinase, is inhibited, thereby inducing autophagy. In autophagy, double-membrane autophagosomes envelop and sequester intracellular components and then fuse with lysosomes to form autolysosomes which degrade their contents to regenerate nutrients. Current models of autophagy terminate with the degradation of autophagosome cargo in autolysosomes3-5, but the regulation of autophagy in response to nutrients and the subsequent fate of the autolysosome are poorly defined. Here we show that mTOR signaling is inhibited during autophagy initiation, but reactivated with prolonged starvation. mTOR reactivation is autophagy-dependent, and requires the degradation of autolysosomal products. Increased mTOR activity attenuates autophagy and generates proto-lysosomal tubules and vesicles that extrude from autolysosomes and ultimately mature into functional lysosomes, thereby restoring the full complement of lysosomes in the cell – a process we identify in multiple animal species. Thus, an evolutionarily-conserved cycle in autophagy governs nutrient sensing and lysosome homeostasis during starvation.
We conjecture that the quantum complexity of a holographic state is dual to the action of a certain spacetime region that we call a Wheeler-DeWitt patch. We illustrate and test the conjecture in the context of neutral, charged, and rotating black holes in anti-de Sitter spacetime, as well as black holes perturbed with static shells and with shock waves. This conjecture evolved from a previous conjecture that complexity is dual to spatial volume, but appears to be a major improvement over the original. In light of our results, we discuss the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
We consider a gravity theory coupled to matter, where the matter has a higher-dimensional holographic dual. In such a theory, finding quantum extremal surfaces becomes equivalent to finding the RT/HRT surfaces in the higher-dimensional theory. Using this we compute the entropy of Hawking radiation and argue that it follows the Page curve, as suggested by recent computations of the entropy and entanglement wedges for old black holes. The higher-dimensional geometry connects the radiation to the black hole interior in the spirit of ER=EPR. The black hole interior then becomes part of the entanglement wedge of the radiation. Inspired by this, we propose a new rule for computing the entropy of quantum systems entangled with gravitational systems which involves searching for “islands” in determining the entanglement wedge.
The interactions of nanoparticles with the soft surfaces of biological systems like cells play key roles in executing their biomedical functions and in toxicity. The discovery or design of new biomedical functions, or the prediction of the toxicological consequences of nanoparticles in vivo, first require knowledge of the interplay processes of the nanoparticles with the target cells. This article focusses on the cellular uptake, location and translocation, and any biological consequences, such as cytotoxicity, of the most widely studied and used nanoparticles, such as carbon-based nanoparticles, metallic nanoparticles, and quantum dots. The relevance of the size and shape, composition, charge, and surface chemistry of the nanoparticles in cells is considered. The intracellular uptake pathways of the nanoparticles and the cellular responses, with potential signaling pathways activated by nanoparticle interactions, are also discussed.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers