This study tested a hypothesis that focused on whether or not teachers' pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is a necessary body of knowledge for reformed science teaching. This study utilized a quantitative research method to investigate the correlation between a teacher's PCK level as measured by the PCK rubric (Park et al. 2008) and the degree to which his/her classroom is reform-oriented as measured by RTOP (Sawada et al. 2002). Data included 33 instructional sessions of photosynthesis and heredity videotaped with 7 high school biology teachers. Each session was given a score on both the PCK rubric and RTOP by two independent raters. Results indicate that PCK score is significantly related to RTOP score in terms of both total score (r=.831, p<.01) and subcomponent scores (ranging from r=.616 to .805, p<.01). Implications for science teacher education and future research are discussed.
Argumentation is a core practice of science that inherently contains uncertainty. Relatively few studies have examined the role of uncertainty within argumentation and how teachers manage uncertainty leading to conceptual development. This design-based, multiple-case study employed the constant K E Y W O R D S argumentation, dialogue, epistemic understanding, managing uncertainty, social negotiation
We demonstrate that laser beams can be converged toward a light-absorbing target through optically diffusive media by using photoacoustic-guided interferometric focusing. The convergence of light is achieved by shaping the wavefront of the incident light with a deformable mirror to maximize the photoacoustic signal, which is propor tional to the scattered light intensity at the light absorber.
This study implemented an online peer assessment activity to help 52 Taiwanese in-service science and mathematics teachers to develop research proposals in an educational research course. The participants were divided into 16 groups, and each group was required to submit a proposal via three rounds of online peerassessment activity. This study found that, through the online peer-assessment activity, the in-service teachers could enhance their proposals at the initial stage of the activity, but there was almost no substantial improvement at the later stage. In addition, the amount of feedback they obtained was positively related to the performance from the first round to the second round; however, few significant relationships were found from the second to the third round. This study also showed that the process of peer assessment could be used to clarify assessment criteria and that sufficient support from the instructor can maintain participants' attitudes towards this activity, which were relatively optimistic throughout.
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