Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex imposing a high zoonotic threat to human health. The limited efficacy of BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin) and upsurges of drug-resistant tuberculosis require new effective vaccination approaches and anti-TB drugs. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a preferential drug delivery system candidate. In this study, we formulated PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulating the recombinant protein bovine neutrophil β-defensin-5 (B5), and investigated its role in immunomodulation and antimicrobial activity against M. bovis challenge. Using the classical water–oil–water solvent-evaporation method, B5-NPs were prepared, with encapsulation efficiency of 85.5% ± 2.5%. These spherical NPs were 206.6 ± 26.6 nm in diameter, with a negatively charged surface (ζ-potential −27.1 ± 1.5 mV). The encapsulated B5 protein from B5-NPs was released slowly under physiological conditions. B5 or B5-NPs efficiently enhanced the secretion of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10 in J774A.1 macrophages. B5-NPs-immunized mice showed significant increases in the production of TNF-α and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in serum, and the proportion of CD4+ T cells in spleen compared with B5 alone. In immunoprotection studies, B5-NPs-immunized mice displayed significant reductions in pulmonary inflammatory area, bacterial burden in the lungs and spleen at 4-week after M. bovis challenge. In treatment studies, B5, but not B5-NPs, assisted rifampicin (RIF) with inhibition of bacterial replication in the lungs and spleen. Moreover, B5 alone also significantly reduced the bacterial load in the lungs and spleen. Altogether, our findings highlight the significance of the B5-PLGA NPs in terms of promoting the immune effect of BCG and the B5 in enhancing the therapeutic effect of RIF against M. bovis.
Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis and also responsible for serious threat to public health. Koumiss is a fermented mare's milk product, used as traditional drink. Here, we explored the effect of koumiss on gut microbiota and the host immune response against M bovis infection. Therefore, mice were treated with koumiss and fresh mare milk for 14 days before M bovis infection and continue for 5 weeks after infection. The results showed a clear change in the intestinal flora of mice treated with koumiss, and the lungs of mice treated with koumiss showed severe edema, inflammatory infiltration, and pulmonary nodules in M bovis‐infected mice. Notably, we found that the content of short‐chain fatty acids was significantly lower in the koumiss‐treated group compared with the control group. However, the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis‐related proteins in the lungs of koumiss‐treated mice were significantly decreased. Collectively, these findings suggest that koumiss treatment disturb the intestinal flora of, which is associated with disease severity and the possible mechanism that induces lungs pathology. Our current findings can be exploited further to establish the “gut‐lung” axis which might be a novel strategy for the control of tuberculosis.
It has been established that kallikrein12 (KLK12) expression is closely related to bovine tuberculosis (bTB) development. Herein, we sought to clarify the regulatory mechanism of KLK12 and its application in tuberculosis diagnosis. KLK12 knockdown macrophages were produced by siRNA transfection. Bradykinin receptors (BR, including B1R and B2R) were blocked with specific inhibitors. Mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) was extracted from Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and used to study the mechanism of KLK12 activation. In addition, we constructed different mouse models representing the latent and active stages of M. bovis infection. Mouse models and clinical serum samples were used to assess the diagnostic value of biomarkers. Through the above methods, we confirmed that KLK12 regulates MMP-1 and MMP-9 via BR. KLK12 upregulation is mediated by the M. bovis-specific antigen ManLAM. KLK12, MMP-1, and MMP-9 harbor significant value as serological markers for differentiating between latent and active bTB, especially KLK12. In conclusion, we identified a novel signaling pathway, KLK12/BR/ERK/MMPs, in M. bovis-infected macrophages, which is activated by ManLAM. From this signaling pathway, KLK12 can be used as a serological marker to differentiate between latent and active bTB. Importantly, KLK12 also has enormous potential for the clinical diagnosis of human tuberculosis (TB).
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