This study describes the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of patients hospitalized for ocular trauma in South-Central China. Notably, a high rate of firework-related ocular trauma occurred during the months adjacent to the Chinese New Year festival. Specific injury prevention strategies, such as the use of protective eyewear, need to target the workplace to reduce the incidence and severity of ocular trauma.
PURPOSE. We performed a bioinformatic transcriptome analysis to determine the alteration of gene expression between the native retina and retinal organoids in both mice and humans. METHODS. The datasets of mouse native retina (GSE101986), mouse retinal organoids (GSE102794), human native retina (GSE104827), and human retinal organoids (GSE119320) were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. After normalization, a principal component analysis was performed to categorize the samples. The genes were clustered to classify them. A functional analysis was performed using the bioinformatics tool Gene ontology enrichment to analyze the biological processes of selected genes and cellular components. RESULTS. The development of retinal organoids is slower than that in the native retina. In the early stage, cell proliferation predominates. Subsequently, neural differentiation is dominant. In the later stage, the dominant differentiated cells are photoreceptors. Additionally, the fatty acid metabolic process and mitochondria-related genes are upregulated over time, and the glycogen catabolic process and activin receptors are gradually downregulated in human retinal organoids. However, these trends are opposite in mouse retinal organoids. There are two peaks in mitochondria-related genes, one in the early development period and another during the photoreceptor development period. It takes about five times longer for human retinal development to achieve similar levels of mouse retinal development. CONCLUSIONS. Our study reveals the similarities and differences in the developmental features of retinal organoids as well as the corresponding relationship between mouse and human retinal development.
Increasing evidence suggests that T cells and glia participate in the process of neuropathic pain. However, little is known about the involvement of T cells or the interaction between glia and T cells at the molecular level. Here we investigated the phenotype of T cell infiltration into the spinal cord in inflammatory pain and explored potential crosstalk between glia and T cells. The establishment of monoarthritis produced T cell infiltration and astrocyte activation, exhibiting similar kinetics in the spinal cord. T-cell-deficient (Rag1−/−) mice significantly attenuated MA-induced mechanical allodynia and GFAP upregulation. Double immunofluorescence staining showed that CD3 mainly colocalized with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Western blot and flow cytometry showed that multiple intrathecal administrations of astrocytic inhibitor fluorocitrate decreased IFN-γ-production without decreasing T cell number in the spinal cord. Spinal IFN-γ blockade reduced MA-induced mechanical allodynia and astroglial activation. In contrast, treatment with rIFN-γ directly elicited persistent mechanical allodynia and upregulation of GFAP and pJNK1/2 in naïve rats. Furthermore, rIFN-γ upregulated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in cultured astrocytes vitro and spinal dorsal horn vivo. The results suggest that Th1 cells and astrocytes maintain inflammatory pain and imply that there may be a positive feedback loop between these cells via IFN-γ.
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