In February 2020, the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) was raging in Wuhan, China and quickly spreading to the rest of the world. This period was fraught with uncertainty for those in the affected areas. The present investigation examined the role of two potential coping resources during this stressful period of uncertainty: flow and mindfulness. Participants in Wuhan and other major cities affected by COVID-19 (N = 5115) completed an online survey assessing subjective experiences of flow, mindfulness, and well-being. Longer quarantine was associated with poorer well-being; flow and mindfulness were associated with better well-being on some measures. However, flow—but not mindfulness—moderated the link between quarantine length and well-being, such that people who experienced high levels flow showed little or no association between quarantine length and poorer well-being. These findings suggest that experiencing flow (typically by engaging in flow-inducing activities) may be a particularly effective way to protect against potentially deleterious effects of a period of quarantine.
A fundamental ability for humans is to monitor and process multiple temporal events that occur at different spatial locations simultaneously. A great number of studies have demonstrated simultaneous temporal processing (STP) in human and animal participants, i.e., multiple ‘clocks’ rather than a single ‘clock’. However, to date, we still have no knowledge about the exact limitation of the STP in vision. Here we provide the first experimental measurement to this critical parameter in human vision by using two novel and complementary paradigms. The first paradigm combines merits of a temporal oddball-detection task and a capacity measurement widely used in the studies of visual working memory to quantify the capacity of STP (CSTP). The second paradigm uses a two-interval temporal comparison task with various encoded spatial locations involved in the standard temporal intervals to rule out an alternative, ‘object individuation’-based, account of CSTP, which is measured by the first paradigm. Our results of both paradigms indicate consistently that the capacity limit of simultaneous temporal processing in vision is around 3 to 4 spatial locations. Moreover, the binding of the ‘local clock’ and its specific location is undermined by bottom-up competition of spatial attention, indicating that the time-space binding is resource-consuming. Our finding that the capacity of STP is not constrained by the capacity of visual working memory (VWM) supports the idea that the representations of STP are likely stored and operated in units different from those of VWM. A second paradigm confirms further that the limited number of location-bound ‘local clocks’ are activated and maintained during a time window of several hundreds milliseconds.
A novel Cu2O-Au-BFO heterostructure photocathode was constructed which significantly improved the efficiency of photo-generated carrier transfer for solar hydrogen production. A BiFeO3 (BFO) ferroelectric film was synthesized on top of a Cu2O layer by a sputtering process. The BFO layer acted to protect the Cu2O layer from photochemical corrosion, increasing photoelectrochemical (PEC) stability. The p–n heterojunction between Cu2O and BFO layers enhanced the PEC properties by suppressing charge recombination and improved interfacial charge transfer efficiency. When Cu2O and BFO are interfaced by Au Nanoparticles (NPs) the PEC performance was further enhanced, due to hot-electron transfer at the plasmonic resonance. After positive poling, the depolarization field across the whole volume of BFO film drove electrons into the electrolyte solution, inducing a significant anodic shift, Vop of 1.01 V vs. RHE, together with a significantly enhanced photocurrent density of −91 μA/cm2 at 0 V vs. RHE under 100 mW/cm2 illumination. The mechanism was investigated through experimental and theoretivcal calculations.
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