Expression of an oncogene in a primary cell can, paradoxically, block proliferation by inducing senescence or apoptosis through pathways that remain to be elucidated. Here we perform genome-wide RNA-interference screening to identify 17 genes required for an activated BRAF oncogene (BRAFV600E) to block proliferation of human primary fibroblasts and melanocytes. Surprisingly, we find a secreted protein, IGFBP7, has a central role in BRAFV600E-mediated senescence and apoptosis. Expression of BRAFV600E in primary cells leads to synthesis and secretion of IGFBP7, which acts through autocrine/paracrine pathways to inhibit BRAF-MEK-ERK signaling and induce senescence and apoptosis. Apoptosis results from IGFBP7-mediated upregulation of BNIP3L, a proapoptotic BCL2 family protein. Recombinant IGFBP7 (rIGFBP7) induces apoptosis in BRAFV600E-positive human melanoma cell lines, and systemically administered rIGFBP7 markedly suppresses growth of BRAFV600E-positive tumors in xenografted mice. Immunohistochemical analysis of human skin, nevi, and melanoma samples implicates loss of IGFBP7 expression as a critical step in melanoma genesis.
The lipocalin mouse 24p3 has been implicated in diverse physiological processes, including apoptosis due to interleukin-3 (IL-3) deprivation and iron transport. Here we report cloning of the 24p3 cell-surface receptor (24p3R). Ectopic 24p3R expression confers on cells the ability to undergo either iron uptake or apoptosis, dependent upon the iron content of the ligand: Iron-loaded 24p3 increases intracellular iron concentration without promoting apoptosis; iron-lacking 24p3 decreases intracellular iron levels, which induces expression of the proapoptotic protein Bim, resulting in apoptosis. Intracellular iron delivery blocks Bim induction and suppresses apoptosis due to 24p3 addition or IL-3 deprivation. We find, unexpectedly, that the BCR-ABL oncoprotein activates expression of 24p3 and represses 24p3R expression, rendering BCR-ABL(+) cells refractory to secreted 24p3. By inhibiting BCR-ABL, imatinib induces 24p3R expression and, consequently, apoptosis. Our results reveal an unanticipated role for intracellular iron regulation in an apoptotic pathway relevant to BCR-ABL-induced myeloproliferative disease and its treatment.
Abstract. We have characterized the structure and function of RNA sequences that direct B-cytoplasmic actin mRNA to the cell periphery were mapped to two segments of 3'-untranslated region by expression of LacZ/B-actin chimeric mRNAs in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). A 54-nt segment, the "RNA zipcode; and a homologous but less active 43-nt segment each localized B-galactosidase activity to the leading lamellae. This zipcode contains the full activity, and mutations or deletions within it reduce, but do not eliminate, its activity, indicating that several motifs contribute to the activity. Two of these motifs, when multimerized, can regenerate almost full activity. These sequences are highly conserved in evolution, since the human/3-actin zipcode, positioned identically in the YUTR localizes equally well in chicken cells. Complementary phosphorothioate oligonucleotides against the zipcode delocalized endogenous/3-actin mRNA, whereas those complementary to the region just outside the zipcode, or sense oligonucleotides, did not. Actin mRNA or protein levels were unaffected by the antisense treatments, but a dramatic change in lamellipodia structure, and actin stress fiber organization was observed using the same antizipeode oligonucleotides which delocalized the mRNA. Hence, discrete 3'UTR sequences direct B-actin isoform synthesis to the leading lamellae and affect cell morphology, presumably through the actin cytoskeleton.TIN is a highly abundant structural constituent of all eukaryotic cells integral to a variety of cellular functions. As a major constituent of the cytoskeleton or myofilaments, it is essential for the maintenance of cell polarity and motility (Bretcher, 1991;Cooper, 1991;Levitt et al
Modification of proteins in conditions of oxidative stress can contribute to protein dysfunction or tissue damage and disease progression. Bifunctional, most often alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), 4-oxo-2-nonenal (ONE), and acrolein, generated from oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), readily bind to protein nucleophiles. Modification by bifunctional aldehydes can also lead to intramolecular or intermolecular protein crosslinking. Model studies are revealing the structure of adducts that can then be more readily identified in mass spectrometric studies on proteins exposed to the various pure aldehydes or to peroxidized PUFAs. Although simple Michael and Schiff base adducts are often formed initially, only some of these adducts, such as the HNE- and ONE-derived Michael adducts on Cys and His residues, are found to survive the conditions of proteolysis and HPLC-MS analysis. Reversibly formed adducts, such as the HNE-Lys Michael adduct, can be found on proteolytic peptides only if a NaBH4-reduction step is used prior to proteolysis. Initial adducts can evolve by tautomerization, oxidation, cyclization, dehydration, and sometimes condensation with a second aldehyde molecule (the same or different), to give stable advanced lipoxidation end products (ALEs) that can be found by mass spectrometry. These include the HNE-Lys-derived 2-pentylpyrrole, the ONE-Lys-derived 4-ketoamide, the ONE-derived His-Lys pyrrole crosslink, and a Lys-derived 3-formyl-4-pentylpyrrole that results from combined action of ONE and acrolein. Michael adducts of alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes such as HNE and ONE can be derivatized by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and can thus constitute significant DNPH-detectable protein-bound carbonyl activity that serves as a key indicator of oxidative stress in tissues. It appears that lipid oxidation is a more important contributor to such activity than metal-catalyzed oxidation of protein side-chains.
RNA interference is an evolutionarily conserved process in which expression of a specific gene is post-transcriptionally inhibited by a small interfering RNA (siRNA), which recognizes a complementary mRNA and induces its degradation. Currently, RNA interference is being used extensively to inhibit expression of specific genes for experimental and therapeutic purposes.
Two forms of XCI ensure the selective silencing of female sex chromosomes during mouse embryogenesis. Imprinted XCI begins with the detection of Xist RNA expression on the paternal X chromosome (Xp) around the four cell stage of embryonic development. In the embryonic tissues of the inner cell mass (ICM), a random form of XCI occurs in blastocysts which inactivates either the Xp or the maternal X chromosome (Xm) 1,2. Both forms of XCI require the non-coding Xist RNA which coats the inactive X chromosome (Xi) from which it is expressed. Xist plays crucial functions for the silencing of X-linked genes including Rnf12 3,4 encoding the ubiquitin ligase RLIM. Targeting a conditional knockout (KO) of Rnf12 to oocytes where RLIM accumulates to high levels, we find that the maternal transmission of the mutant X chromosome (Δm) leads to embryonic lethality due to defective imprinted XCI. We show that in Δm female embryos the initial formation of Xist clouds and Xp silencing is inhibited. In contrast, ES cells lacking RLIM are able to form Xist clouds and silence at least some X-linked genes during random XCI. These results assign crucial roles to the maternal deposit of Rnf12/RLIM for the initiation of imprinted XCI.
Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established curative treatment for a number of malignant and non-malignant diseases involving the hematopoietic system and some solid tumors. In this report, we provide information about the number of HCT procedures performed in the United States (US) in 2015 and analyze trends and outcomes of HCT as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research® (CIBMTR®). We show that the numbers of HCT performed annually continue to increase, the indications for HCT, preferred donor sources and GVHD prophylaxis continue to evolve. We report on general overall survival by indication, disease status at transplant and by transplant type. This report demonstrates a current perspective on transplant activity in the US with focus on recent trends in alternative donors and contemporary transplant practices.
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