In order to improve handling stability performance and active safety of a ground vehicle, a large number of advanced vehicle dynamics control systems—such as the direct yaw control system and active front steering system, and in particular the advanced driver assistance systems—towards connected and automated driving vehicles have recently been developed and applied. However, the practical effects and potential performance of vehicle active safety dynamics control systems heavily depend on real-time knowledge of fundamental vehicle state information, which is difficult to measure directly in a standard car because of both technical and economic reasons. This paper presents a comprehensive technical survey of the development and recent research advances in vehicle system dynamic state estimation. Different aspects of estimation strategies and methodologies in recent literature are classified into two main categories—the model-based estimation approach and the data-driven-based estimation approach. Each category is further divided into several sub-categories from the perspectives of estimation-oriented vehicle models, estimations, sensor configurations, and involved estimation techniques. The principal features of the most popular methodologies are summarized, and the pros and cons of these methodologies are also highlighted and discussed. Finally, future research directions in this field are provided.
To improve the driving performance and the stability of the electric vehicle, a novel acceleration slip regulation (ASR) algorithm based on fuzzy logic control strategy is proposed for four-wheel independent driving (4WID) electric vehicles. In the algorithm, angular acceleration and slip rate based fuzzy controller of acceleration slip regulation are designed to maintain the wheel slip within the optimal range by adjusting the motor torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the algorithm, the models of the main components related to the ASR of the four-wheel independent driving electric vehicle are built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. The simulations show that the driving stability and the safety of the electric vehicle are improved for fuzzy logic control compared with the conventional PID control.
This paper presents a robust gain‐scheduled H∞ controller to improve lateral stability and handling of four‐wheel‐independent‐drive electric vehicles possessing active front steering system with considerations of state delay. The time delay for the state is assumed as uncertain time‐invariant but has a known constant bound. By considering the tyre cornering stiffness represented by the norm‐bounded uncertainty and the time‐varying longitudinal velocity described by a polytope with finite vertices, and the vehicle lateral dynamics model is converted into the uncertain vehicle linear parameter‐varying (LPV) state‐delayed system. The resulting delay‐dependent robust gain‐scheduling state feedback H∞ controller is finally designed utilizing the constructed Lyapunov‐Krakovskii functional, and solved via a set of delay‐dependent linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Simulations for various driving scenarios are implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK‐CARSIM. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed controller.
A new cooperative braking control strategy (CBCS) is proposed for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) with both a regenerative braking system and an antilock braking system (ABS) to achieve improved braking performance and energy regeneration. The braking system of the vehicle is based on a new method of HEV braking torque distribution that makes the antilock braking system work together with the regenerative braking system harmoniously. In the cooperative braking control strategy, a sliding mode controller (SMC) for ABS is designed to maintain the wheel slip within an optimal range by adjusting the hydraulic braking torque continuously; to reduce the chattering in SMC, a boundary-layer method with moderate tuning of a saturation function is also investigated; based on the wheel slip ratio, battery state of charge (SOC), and the motor speed, a fuzzy logic control strategy (FLC) is applied to adjust the regenerative braking torque dynamically. In order to evaluate the performance of the cooperative braking control strategy, the braking system model of a hybrid electric vehicle is built in MATLAB/SIMULINK. It is found from the simulation that the cooperative braking control strategy suggested in this paper provides satisfactory braking performance, passenger comfort, and high regenerative efficiency.
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