Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. However, the impact of MetS on gastric cancer mortality remains largely unknown. Here, we prospectively examined the prediction of preoperative MetS for gastric cancer mortality by analyzing a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. This study was conducted among 3012 patients with gastric cancer who received radical gastrectomy between 2000 and 2010. The latest follow-up was completed in 2015. Blood/tissue specimens, demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics were collected at baseline. During 15-year follow-up, 1331 of 3012 patients died of gastric cancer. The median survival time (MST) of patients with MetS was 31.3 months, which was significantly shorter than that of MetS-free patients (157.1 months). The coexistence of MetS before surgery was associated with a 2.3-fold increased risk for gastric cancer mortality (P < 0.001). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were increased with invasion depth T1/T2 (HR = 2.78, P < 0.001), regional lymph node metastasis N0 (HR = 2.65, P < 0.001), positive distant metastasis (HR = 2.53, P < 0.001), TNM stage I/II (HR = 3.00, P < 0.001), intestinal type (HR = 2.96, P < 0.001), negative tumor embolus (HR = 2.34, P < 0.001), and tumor size ≤ 4.5 cm (HR = 2.49, P < 0.001). Further survival tree analysis confirmed the top splitting role of TNM stage, followed by MetS or hyperglycemia with remarkable discrimination ability. In this large cohort study, preoperative MetS, especially hyperglycemia, was predictive of significant gastric cancer mortality in patients with radical gastrectomy, especially for early stage of gastric cancer.
This prospective study sought to investigate the prediction of preoperative metabolic syndrome and its components for the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality by analyzing a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. In total, 1,318 CRC patients who received radical resection were consecutively enrolled between January 2000 and December 2008. The median follow-up time was 58.6 months, with 412 deaths from CRC. The CRC patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly shorter median survival time (MST) than those without (50.9 vs. 170.3 months, p < 0.001). Among four components of metabolic syndrome, hyperglycemia was the strongest predictor and its presence was associated with shorter MST than its absence (44.4 vs. 170.3 months, p < 0.001). Moreover, the complication of metabolic syndrome in CRC patients was associated with a 2.98-fold increased risk of CRC mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.40-3.69, p < 0.001) after adjusting for confounding factors. The magnitude of this association was especially potentiated in CRC patients with tumor-node-metastasis stage I/II (HR = 3.94, 95% CI: 2.65-5.85, p < 0.001), invasion depth T1/T2 (HR = 5.41, 95% CI: 2.54-11.50, p < 0.001), regional lymph node metastasis N0 (HR = 4.06, 95% CI: 2.85-5.80, p < 0.001) and negative distant metastasis (HR = 3.23, 95% CI: 2.53-4.12, p < 0.001). Further survival tree analysis reinforced the prognostic capability of fasting blood glucose in CRC survival. Our findings convincingly demonstrated that preoperative metabolic syndrome, especially hyperglycemia, was a robust predictor for CRC mortality, and the protection was more obvious in patients with Stage I/II.
Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is a predictive biomarker of the success of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitor therapy for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but its role as a prognostic marker for early stage resectable NSCLC remains unclear. Here, we studied PD-L1 expression and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in surgically resectable NSCLC and correlate the finding with clinicopathological features and patient outcomes. Total of 170 archival samples of resectable NSCLC were probed for PD-L1 expression using the clone 22C3 pharmDx kit. The PD-L1 expression was determined by the Tumor Proportion Score (TPS) and classified into TPS <1%, TPS 1 to 49% and TPS ≥50%. The scoring of TILs was from hematoxylin & eosin stained tissue sections using a system for standardized evaluation of TILs in breast cancer. PD-L1 expression was compared with clinical pathological characteristics and survival outcome. Expression of PD-L1 scores of TPS ≥50%, TPS 1 to 49% and TPS <1% were observed in 10.6%, 24.7% and 64.7% of the 170 archival samples, respectively. Positive PD-L1 expression was significantly higher in patients with squamous carcinoma, in those with higher TNM stage and with the presence of TILs. Neither the PD-L1 expression, TIL status, nor their combination was an independent prognosis biomarker of survival when the data was subjected to either univariate or multivariate analysis. The incidence of PDL1 expression appears to be lower in patient with early stage resectable lung cancer. PD-L1 expression and TILs are not prognostic indicators of survival outcome in this population.
Gastric cancer, a highly heterogeneous disease, is the second leading cause of cancer death and the fourth most common cancer globally, with East Asia accounting for more than half of cases annually. Alongside TNM staging, gastric cancer clinic has two well-recognized classification systems, the Lauren classification that subdivides gastric adenocarcinoma into intestinal and diffuse types and the alternative World Health Organization system that divides gastric cancer into papillary, tubular, mucinous (colloid), and poorly cohesive carcinomas. Both classification systems enable a better understanding of the histogenesis and the biology of gastric cancer yet have a limited clinical utility in guiding patient therapy due to the molecular heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Unprecedented whole-genome-scale data have been catalyzing and advancing the molecular subtyping approach. Here we cataloged and compared those published gene expression profiling signatures in gastric cancer. We summarized recent integrated genomic characterization of gastric cancer based on additional data of somatic mutation, chromosomal instability, EBV virus infection, and DNA methylation. We identified the consensus patterns across these signatures and identified the underlying molecular pathways and biological functions. The identification of molecular subtyping of gastric adenocarcinoma and the development of integrated genomics approaches for clinical applications such as prediction of clinical intervening emerge as an essential phase toward personalized medicine in treating gastric cancer.
Discovered in the brains of multiple animal species, piRNAs may contribute to the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric illnesses. The present study aimed to identify brain piRNAs across transcriptome that are associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Prefrontal cortical tissues of six AD cases and six controls were examined for piRNA expression levels using an Arraystar HG19 piRNA array (containing 23,677 piRNAs) and genotyped for 17 genome-wide significant and replicated risk SNPs. We examined whether piRNAs are expressed differently between AD cases and controls and explored the potential regulatory effects of risk SNPs on piRNA expression levels. We identified a total of 9453 piRNAs in human brains, with 103 nominally (p<0.05) differentially (> 1.5 fold) expressed in AD cases vs. controls and most of the 103 piRNAs nominally correlated with genome-wide significant risk SNPs. We conclude that piRNAs are abundant in human brains and may represent risk biomarkers of AD.
PD-L1 expression in TMAs correlates moderately well with that in the corresponding surgical specimens, indicating that evaluating PD-L1 expression in diagnostic biopsy specimens could be misleading in defining sensitivity to pembrolizumab treatment yet may be reliable as a way to exclude patients with a PD-L1 TPS less than 50% from first-line pembrolizumab treatment.
The Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a variety of cancers, including gastric cancer, which has one of the highest mortality rates of all human cancers. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been suggested to have important causal roles in gastric cancer. However, the interaction between lncRNAs and EBV has not yet been studied. To this end, we sequenced 11,311 lncRNAs and 144,826 protein-coding transcripts from four types of tissue: one non-EBV-infected gastric carcinoma (EBVnGC) and its adjacent normal tissue, and one EBV-associated gastric carcinoma (EBVaGC) and its adjacent normal tissue. Five lncRNAs showed EBVaGC-specific expression; of those, one (SNHG8) was validated using real-time PCR in an independent cohort with 88 paired gastric cancer and adjacent tissue samples. To explore the functions of SNHG8, we identified its mRNA targets on the lncRNA–mRNA co-expression network of the Illumina Body Map, which contains the RNA sequencing data of mRNAs and lncRNAs from 16 normal human tissues. SNHG8 lncRNA was found to affect several gastric cancer-specific pathways and target genes of EBV. Our results reveal the intertwined tumorigenesis mechanisms of lncRNA and EBV and identify SNHG8 as a highly possible candidate biomarker and drug target of gastric cancer.
Some metabolic factors have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer; however the association with its prognosis is rarely reported. Here, we assessed the prediction of preoperative metabolic syndrome and its single components for esophageal cancer mortality by analyzing a subset of data from the ongoing Fujian prospective investigation of cancer (FIESTA) study. Between 2000 and 2010, patients who underwent three-field lymphadenectomy were eligible for inclusion. Blood/tissue specimens, demographic and clinicopathologic data were collected at baseline. Metabolic syndrome is defined by the criteria proposed by Chinese Diabetes Society. In this study, analysis was restricted to esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) due to the limited number of other histological types. The median follow-up in 2396 ESCC patients (males/females: 1822/574) was 38.2 months (range, 0.5–180 months). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of metabolic syndrome for ESCC mortality was statistically significant in males (HR, 95% confidence interval, P: 1.45, 1.14–1.83, 0.002), but not in females (1.46, 0.92–2.31, 0.107). For single metabolic components, the multivariate-adjusted HRs were significant for hyperglycemia (1.98, 1.68–2.33, < 0.001) and dyslipidemia (1.41, 1.20–1.65, < 0.001) in males and for hyperglycemia (1.76, 1.23–2.51, < 0.001) in females, independent of clinicopathologic characteristics and obesity. In tree-structured survival analysis, the top splitting factor in both genders was tumor-node-metastasis stage, followed by regional lymph node metastasis. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that preoperative metabolic syndrome was a significant independent predictor of ESCC mortality in males, and this effect was largely mediated by glyeolipid metabolism disorder.
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