The aim of this study was to compare echocardiographic measurements with non-ECG-gated contrast-enhanced cardiac CT measurements in dogs. Fifty-seven dogs were included in the study. The following echocardiographic parameters were measured: M-mode interventricular septum in diastole and systole, left ventricular internal diameter in diastole and systole, left ventricular free wall in diastole and systole, 2D left atrial maximal diameter, 2D left atrium to aorta ratio in diastole, 2D aortic annulus in systole and 2D pulmonary annulus in diastole and systole. CT measurements were obtained from multiplanar reconstruction images, replicating the imaging planes used for 2D measurements on echocardiography. It was not possible to discriminate between systole and diastole. The results showed moderate Lin's concordance correlation coefficients between the left ventricular internal diameter in systole (0.77), the aortic annuli (0.84) and the pulmonary annuli in diastole (0.78) and systole (0.80). Low coefficients were obtained between the other parameters. Bland-Altman plots for the parameters with highest concordance correlation coefficients were calculated. They suggested equivalence between the measurements of the aortic annuli. Equivalence was not seen between the remaining echocardiographic and CT measurements. Therefore, non-ECG-gated CT is not a reliable way of quantitatively assessing cardiac size.
The objective of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and survival characteristics and to identify risk factors for mortality due to tricuspid valve dysplasia in UK dogs. Records of client-owned dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia at a referral centre were retrospectively reviewed. Only dogs diagnosed with tricuspid valve dysplasia based on the presence of a right-sided heart murmur identified prior to one year of age, and confirmed with Doppler echocardiography, were included. Dogs with concomitant cardiac diseases, pulmonary hypertension and/or trivial tricuspid regurgitation were excluded. Analysed data included signalment, reason for presentation, clinical signs, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic features, survival status and cause of death. Survival times and risk factors for mortality were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression. Eighteen dogs met inclusion criteria. Border collies were over-represented (p= 0.014). Dogs were most frequently referred for investigation of heart murmur. The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (n=3). Median survival time from diagnosis of tricuspid valve dysplasia was 2775 days (range 1-3696 days; 95% CI 1542.41-4007.59) and from onset of right-sided congestive heart failure was 181 days (range 1-2130 days; 95% CI 0-455.59). Syncope was the sole risk factor for cardiac death. In this population of UK dogs, tricuspid valve dysplasia was uncommon but, when severe, frequently led to rightsided congestive heart failure. Prognosis was favourable for mild and moderate tricuspid dysplasia. Survival time was reduced with right-sided congestive heart failure but varied widely. Risk of cardiac death was significantly increased if syncope had occurred.
The aims of this study were to evaluate taurine levels in English cocker spaniels with dilated cardiomyopathy and assess their survival time and natural progression of their disease.Materials and MethOds: Retrospective comparison of English cocker spaniels with dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype with and without taurine deficiency at the cardiology department of a UK academic referral centre between 2008 and 2018. results: Taurine plasma concentration was available in 16 English cocker spaniels with dilated cardiomyopathy phenotype; 13 of 16 had congestive heart failure and three of 16 did not. Taurine concentration was low (<50 μmol/L) in 13 of 16 and normal in three of 16. Deficient dogs received taurine supplementation in addition to conventional cardiac medications. Eight dogs were still alive at the end of this study and eight were dead. MST for all dogs included in the study was 2800 days. Left ventricular systolic function improved and left ventricular dimensions reduced in English cocker spaniels with taurine deficiency following taurine supplementation and conventional cardiac therapy, although similar results were observed in English cocker spaniels with normal taurine concentration on cardiac therapy alone. clinical significance: Based on laboratory reference intervals, low taurine concentrations were common in English cocker spaniels with dilated cardiomyopathy, showing a possible association between dilated cardiomyopathy in English cocker spaniels and taurine deficiency; supplementation with taurine was not curative.
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