Two carboxyalkylphosphonic acids (HOOC(CH(2))(n)P(O)(OH)(2), n = 2 for 3-PPA and n = 9 for 10-PDA) have been deposited onto 1D zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires and bare ZnO wafers to form stable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). The samples were systematically characterized using wettability, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). 3-PPA was bound to the ZnO surfaces mainly through the CO(2)H headgroup, and 10-PDA formed self-assembled monolayers on the nanoscaled ZnO surface through the PO(3)H(2) headgroups. To verify the potential utilization of the functionalized surfaces in the construction of biosensors or bioelectronics, IgG (immunoglobulin G) protein immobilization through SAM bridging was demonstrated. This work expands the application of phosphonic acid-based surface functionalization on sensing and optoelectronic devices.
Hypoxia plays a vital role in the progression of endometriosis. Additionally, integrin-mediated aberrant adhesion is also essential for establishment of endometriotic lesions. In this study, we sought to determine the function of hypoxia in integrin-mediated adhesion of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) in endometriosis. The expressions of adhesion molecule integrins (integrin α5, integrin αV, integrin β3, and integrin β5) were determined in 15 normal endometria and 15 paired eutopic and ectopic endometria by immunohistochemistry. Thirteen primary ESCs from patients with peritoneal endometriosis in the proliferative phase were cultured under a hypoxic (1% O2) or normoxic (21% O2) environment, and the expression levels of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and integrins were detected by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The alteration of integrins in endometriotic mouse models were also explored. Our results demonstrated that HIF-1α and integrins were highly expressed in ESCs of endometriotic lesions compared with ESCs of eutopic and normal endometrium. Hypoxia treatment significantly increased ESC adhesion abilities and integrin expression, which were positively correlated with TGF-β1 expression. Both TGF-β1 and hypoxia enhanced ESC adhesion properties, whereas hypoxia combined with TGF-β1 receptor inhibitor inhibited ESC adhesion. Knockdown of HIF-1α attenuated TGF-β1/Smad signaling activation and integrin expression and reduced ESC adhesion. Higher expression levels of HIF-1α, TGF-β1, and integrins were detected in endometriotic cysts from mice models. Our findings provide a novel insight of endometriosis that the hypoxic microenvironment stimulates ESCs to produce excessive TGF-β1 and activates the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway, thus enhancing integrin expression and the adhesion ability of ESCs.
Unresponsive thin endometrium caused by Asherman syndrome (AS) is the major cause of uterine infertility. However, current therapies are ineffective. This study is to evaluate the effect of transplantation with collagen scaffold/umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (CS/UC-MSCs) on this refractory disease.
Eighteen infertile women with unresponsive thin endometrium, whose frozen–thawed embryo transfers (FETs) were cancelled due to reduced endometrial thickness (ET ≤ 5.5 mm), were enrolled in this before and after self-control prospective study. Hysteroscopic examination was performed to confirm no intrauterine adhesions, then twenty million UC-MSCs loaded onto a CS were transplanted into the uterine cavity in two consecutive menstrual cycles. Then uterine cavity was assessed through hysteroscopy after two transplants. FETs were performed in the following cycle. Pregnancy outcomes were followed up. Endometrial thickness, uterine receptivity and endometrial angiogenesis, proliferation and hormone response were compared before and after treatment.
Sixteen patients completed the study. No treatment-related serious adverse events occurred. Three months after transplantation, the average ET increased from 4.08 ± 0.26 mm to 5.87 ± 0.77 mm (P < 0.001). Three of 15 patients after FET got pregnant, of whom 2 gave birth successfully and 1 had a miscarriage at 25 weeks’ gestation. One of 2 patients without FET had a natural pregnancy and gave birth normally after transplantation. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased micro-vessel density, upregulated expression of Ki67, estrogen receptor alpha, and progesterone receptor, indicating an improvement in endometrial angiogenesis, proliferation, and response to hormones.
CS/UC-MSCs is a promising and potential approach for treating women with unresponsive thin endometrium caused by AS.
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03724617. Registered on 26 October 2018—prospectively registered, https://register.clinicaltrials.gov/
Abstract:The genus Miscanthus has great potential as a biofuel feedstock because of its high biomass, good burning quality, environmental tolerance, and good adaptability to marginal land. In this study, the genetic diversity and the relationship of 24 different natural Miscanthus sinensis populations collected from Southwestern China were analyzed by using 33 pairs of Sequence Related Amplified Polymorphism (SRAP) primers. A total of 688 bands were detected with 646 polymorphic bands, an average of 19.58 polymorphic bands per primer pair. The average percentage of polymorphic loci (P), gene diversity (H), and Shannon's diversity index (I) among the 24 populations are 70.59%, 0.2589, and 0.3836, respectively. The mean value of total gene diversity (H T ) was 0.3373 ± 0.0221, while the allelic diversity within populations (H S ) was 0.2589 ± 0.0136 and the allelic diversity among populations (D ST ) was 0.0784. The mean genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst = 0.2326) estimated from the detected 688 loci indicated that there was 76.74% genetic differentiation within the populations, which is consistent with the results from Analysis of Molecular
12882Variance (AMOVA) analysis. Based upon population structure and phylogenetic analysis, five groups were formed and a special population with mixed ancestry was inferred indicating that human-mediated dispersal may have had a significant effect on population structure of M. sinensis. Evaluating the genetic structure and genetic diversity at morphological and molecular levels of the wild M. sinensis in Southwest China is critical to further utilize the wild M. sinensis germplasm in the breeding program. The results in this study will facilitate the biofuel feedstock breeding program and germplasm conservation.
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is characterized by endometrial fibrosis, which ultimately leads to menstrual abnormalities, infertility, and recurrent miscarriages. The Shh/Gli2 pathway plays a critical role in tissue fibrogenesis and regeneration; Gli2 activation induces profibrogenic effects in various tissues, such as the liver and kidney. However, the role of Gli2 in endometrial fibrosis remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that activated Gli2 promotes endometrial fibrosis. Endometrial samples from moderate and severe IUA patients exhibited significantly enhanced expression of Gli2 compared with normal endometrial samples and mild IUA samples. Transfection with overactive Gli2 plasmids induced higher fibrosis-related protein expression, while blocking Gli2 signaling with cyclopamine caused the opposite effect in endometriotic stromal cells (ESCs), including inducing cell-cycle arrest. Menstrual-derived stem cell conditioned medium (MenSCs-CM) reduced endometrial fibrosis by reducing Gli2 protein levels and causing cell-cycle arrest in ESCs through granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). The effect was weakened after neutralization with a G-CSF antibody. Gli2 overexpression reduced the effects of MenSC-CM and G-CSF on fibrosis and cell-cycle progression in vitro. The antifibrotic effect of G-CSF was also observed in murine model. These findings demonstrate that Gli2 signaling promotes endometrial fibrosis, and the inhibition of Gli2 through MenSCs-secreted G-CSF may be of therapeutic value for managing endometrial fibrosis.
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