Identifying the spatial organization of tissues at cellular resolution from single cell gene expression profiles is essential to understanding biological systems. Using an in situ 3D multiplexed imaging method, seqFISH, we identify unique transcriptional states by quantifying and clustering up to 249 genes in 16,958 cells to examine whether the hippocampus is organized into transcriptionally distinct subregions. We identified distinct layers in the dentate gyrus corresponding to the granule cell layer and the subgranular zone and contrary to previous reports, discovered that distinct subregions within the CA1 and CA3 are composed of unique combinations of cells in different transcriptional states. In addition, we found that the dorsal CA1 is relatively homogenous at the single cell level, while ventral CA1 is highly heterogeneous. These structures and patterns are observed using different mice and different sets of genes. Together, these results demonstrate the power of seqFISH in transcriptional profiling of complex tissues.
Visualization of the transcriptome and the nuclear organization in situ has been challenging for single cell analysis. Here, we demonstrate a multiplexed single molecule in situ method, intron seqFISH, that allows imaging of 10,421 genes at their nascent transcription active sites in single cells, followed by mRNA and lncRNA seqFISH and immunofluorescence. This nascent transcriptome profiling method can identify different cell types and states with mouse embryonic stem cells and fibroblasts. The nascent sites of RNA synthesis tend to be localized on the surfaces of chromosome territories and their organization in individual cells is highly variable. Surprisingly, the global nascent transcription oscillated asynchronously in individual cells with a period of 2 hours in mouse embryonic stem cells as well as in fibroblasts. Together, spatial genomics of the nascent transcriptome by intron seqFISH reveals nuclear organizational principles and fast dynamics in single cells that are otherwise obscured.
 Interdecadal variations in the early (May -June) summer monsoon rainfall over South China (SCMR) are found to be related to the ENSO (El Niño/Southern Oscillation) and the PDO (Pacific Decadal Oscillation). An interdecadal variation in SCMR can be identified, with more dry (wet) monsoon years during the periods of high (low) PDO index. Such variations are also related to ENSO in association with PDO. When ENSO and PDO are in phase, i.e. high PDO phase/El Niño events, or low PDO phase/La Niña events, the SCMR tends to be below or above normal respectively more often. But when the ENSO and PDO are out-of-phase, the SCMR has no wet or dry preference. Such relationships appear to be related to the intensity of the subtropical high determined by the superposition of the effects of ENSO and PDO.
Integrating emotional cues from different senses is critical for adaptive behavior. Much of the evidence on cross-modal perception of emotions has come from studies of vision and audition. This research has shown that an emotion signaled by one sense modulates how the same emotion is perceived in another sense, especially when the input to the latter sense is ambiguous. We tested whether olfaction causes similar sensory modulation of emotion perception. In two experiments, the chemosignal of fearful sweat biased women toward interpreting ambiguous expressions as more fearful, but had no effect when the facial emotion was more discernible. Our findings provide direct behavioral evidence that social chemosignals can communicate emotions and demonstrate that fear-related chemosignals modulate humans' visual emotion perception in an emotion-specific way--an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected.
Monolayer of 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, with a thickness of less than 1 nm, paves a feasible path to the development of ultrathin memristive synapses, to fulfill the requirements for constructing large-scale high density 3D stacking neuromorphic chips. Herein, memristive devices based on monolayer n-MoS on p-Si substrate with a large self-rectification ratio, exhibiting photonic potentiation and electric habituation, are successfully fabricated. Versatile synaptic neuromorphic functions, such as potentiation/habituation, short-term/long-term plasticity, and paired-pulse facilitation, are successfully mimicked based on the inherent persistent photoconductivity performance and the volatile resistive switching behavior. These findings demonstrate the potential applications of ultrathin transition metal dichalcogenides for memristive synapses. These memristive synapses with the combination of photonic and electric neuromorphic functions have prospective in the applications of synthetic retinas and optoelectronic interfaces for integrated photonic circuits based on mixed-mode electro-optical operation.
Vision is widely accepted as the dominant sense in larger primates including humans, whereas olfaction is often considered a vestigial sense yielding only obscure object representations . It is well documented that vision drives olfactory perception [2-3], but the converse is hardly known. Here we introduce smells to a well-established visual phenomenon termed binocular rivalry, perceptual alternations that occur when distinctively different images are separately presented to the two eyes . We show that an odorant congruent to one of the competing images prolongs the time that image is visible and shortens its suppression time in a manner that is automatic, essentially independent of cognitive control, and partly subconscious. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that an olfactory cue biases the dynamic process of binocular rivalry, thereby demonstrating olfactory modulation of visual perception - an effect that has been hitherto unsuspected.
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