This paper presents the design and deployment experience of an air-dropped wireless sensor network for volcano hazard monitoring. The deployment of five stations into the rugged crater of Mount St. Helens only took one hour with a helicopter. The stations communicate with each other through an amplified 802.15.4 radio and establish a self-forming and self-healing multi-hop wireless network. The distance between stations is up to 2 km. Each sensor station collects and delivers real-time continuous seismic, infrasonic, lightning, GPS raw data to a gateway. The main contribution of this paper is the design and evaluation of a robust sensor network to replace data loggers and provide real-time long-term volcano monitoring. The system supports UTCtime synchronized data acquisition with 1ms accuracy, and is online configurable. It has been tested in the lab environment, the outdoor campus and the volcano crater. Despite the heavy rain, snow, and ice as well as gusts exceeding 120 miles per hour, the sensor network has achieved a remarkable packet delivery ratio above 99% with an overall system uptime of about 93.8% over the 1.5 months evaluation period after deployment. Our initial deployment experiences with the system have alleviated the doubts of domain scientists and prove to them that a low-cost sensor network system can support real-time monitoring in extremely harsh environments.
Abstract-We study efficient interference-aware joint routing and TDMA link scheduling for a multihop wireless network to maximize its throughput. Efficient link scheduling can greatly reduce the interference effect of close-by transmissions. Unlike the previous studies that often assume a unit disk graph model, we assume that different terminals could have different transmission ranges and different interference ranges. In our model, it is also possible that a communication link may not exist due to barriers or is not used by a predetermined routing protocol, while the transmission of a node always result interference to all non-intended receivers within its interference range.Using a mathematical formulation, we develop interference aware joint routing and synchronized TDMA link schedulings that optimize the networking throughput subject to various constraints. Our linear programming formulation will find a flow routing whose achieved throughput is at least a constant fraction of the optimum, and the achieved fairness is also a constant fraction of the requirement. Then, by assuming known link capacities and link traffic loads, we study link scheduling under the RTS/CTS interference model and the protocol interference model with fixed transmission power. For both models, we present both efficient centralized and distributed algorithms that use time slots within a constant factor of the optimum. We also present efficient distributed algorithms whose performances are still comparable with optimum, but with much less communications. We prove that the time-slots needed by our faster distributed algorithms are only at most O(min(log n, log ψ)) for RTS/CTS interference model and protocol interference model. Our theoretical results are corroborated by extensive simulation studies.
The Internet of Things (IoT) refers to a network of connected devices collecting and exchanging data over the Internet. These things can be artificial or natural and interact as autonomous agents forming a complex system. In turn, Business Process Management (BPM) was established to analyze, discover, design, implement, execute, monitor and evolve collaborative business processes within and across organizations. While the IoT and BPM have been regarded as separate topics in research and practice, we strongly believe that the management of IoT applications will strongly benefit from BPM concepts, methods and technologies on the one hand; on the other one, the IoT poses challenges that will require enhancements and extensions of the current state-of-the-art in the BPM field. In this paper, we question to what extent these two paradigms can be combined and we discuss the emerging challenges and intersections from a research and practitioner's point of view in terms of complex software systems development.How IoT can benefit from BPM? Let us consider a complex system with multiple components interacting within a smart environment being aware of the components' locations, movements, and interactions. Such a system can be a smart factory with autonomous robots, a retirement home with connected residents, or, at a larger scale, a smart city. While the parties in the system can track the movements of each component and also relate multiple components' behaviors to each other, they do not know the components' agendas. Often their interactions are based on habits, i.e., routine low-level processes, which represent recurring tasks. Some of these routines are more time and cost critical than others, some may be dangerous or endanger others, and some may just be inefficient or superfluous. Knowing their agendas, their goals, and their procedures can enable a better basis for planning, execution, and safety.
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