h i g h l i g h t sIdentifies rate-limiting material-level thermal conduction process in a Li-ion cell. Shows that interfacial thermal conduction between cathode and separator contributes 88% of total thermal resistance. Experimental data agrees with theoretical model on thermal contact resistance. Chemical bridging of this interface results in 4X reduction in thermal contact resistance. Results may contribute towards thermal safety of Li-ion cells.
a b s t r a c tWhile Li-ion cells offer excellent electrochemical performance for several applications including electric vehicles, they also exhibit poor thermal transport characteristics, resulting in reduced performance, overheating and thermal runaway. Inadequate heat removal from Li-ion cells originates from poor thermal conductivity within the cell. This paper identifies the rate-limiting material-level process that dominates overall thermal conduction in a Li-ion cell. Results indicate that thermal characteristics of a Liion cell are largely dominated by heat transfer across the cathode-separator interface rather than heat transfer through the materials themselves. This interfacial thermal resistance contributes around 88% of total thermal resistance in the cell. Measured value of interfacial resistance is close to that obtained from theoretical models that account for weak adhesion and large acoustic mismatch between cathode and separator. Further, to address this problem, an amine-based chemical bridging of the interface is carried out. This is shown to result in in four-times lower interfacial thermal resistance without deterioration in electrochemical performance, thereby increasing effective thermal conductivity by three-fold. This improvement is expected to reduce peak temperature rise during operation by 60%. By identifying and addressing the material-level root cause of poor thermal transport in Li-ion cells, this work may contributes towards improved thermal performance of Li-ion cells.
The performance, safety, and reliability of electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems based on Li-ion cells depend critically on the nature of heat transfer in Li-ion cells, which occurs over multiple length scales, ranging from thin material layers all the way to large battery packs. Thermal phenomena in Li-ion cells are also closely coupled with other transport phenomena such as ionic and charge transport, making this a challenging, multidisciplinary problem. This review paper presents a critical analysis of recent research literature related to experimental measurement of multiscale thermal transport in Li-ion cells. Recent research on several topics related to thermal transport is summarized, including temperature and thermal property measurements, heat generation measurements, thermal management, and thermal runaway measurements on Li-ion materials, cells, and battery packs. Key measurement techniques and challenges in each of these fields are discussed. Critical directions for future research in these fields are identified.
Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue. Here, we report that this highly-effective at-a-distance guidance is the result of a temperature field produced by the near-infrared laser light absorption. Since light absorption by extracellular medium increases when the laser wavelength was red shifted, the threshold laser power for reliable guidance was significantly lower in the near-infrared as compared to the visible spectrum. The spatial temperature gradient caused by the near-infrared laser beam at-a-distance was found to activate temperature-sensitive membrane receptors, resulting in an influx of calcium. The repulsive guidance effect was significantly reduced when extracellular calcium was depleted or in the presence of TRPV1-antagonist. Further, direct heating using micro-heater confirmed that the axonal guidance is caused by shallow temperature-gradient, eliminating the role of any non-photothermal effects.
A solar-energy based vapor absorption refrigeration system is potentially an excellent alternative air-conditioning system. However, there are several research challenges to ensure sufficient efficiency and reliability for ensuring widespread implementation. Integration of a parabolic trough solar collector utilizing a mixture of nanoparticles and water with a vapor absorption system has the potential to significantly enhance the efficiency of the system. Such a system makes use of the superior thermo-physical properties of the nanofluid compared to the base fluid. Moreover, the direct absorption phenomenon of solar radiation through interaction with the participating medium (nanofluid) results in a higher temperature rise of the medium in conjunction with higher operating efficiencies as well. At the same time there are certain challenges that need to be identified and addressed in the implementation of this novel concept. For instance, to make it reliable, the system further needs to be integrated with a thermal storage system which facilitates air-conditioning even during non-sunshine hours. Integration of vapor absorption refrigeration technology, parabolic trough with water-nanoparticles mixture as the absorbing medium and a thermal storage facility is the uniqueness of this design which under certain conditions and locations may prove to be an efficient and reliable substitute to the conventional electrical air-conditioning systems. In this particular study a space cooling application for approximately 100 Tons of refrigeration is studied. Hourly variation in sunlight as well as seasonal changes for temperate climate conditions is considered. Parameters such as the cooling load of the space, and waste heat produced by electronics are evaluated. The cooling system driven by the nanofluid-based concentrated parabolic solar collector is mathematical modeled and then the optimization is done by varying the nanoparticle size and volume fraction in order to obtain the best result for collector outlet temperature, thermal efficiency and optical efficiency.
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