New generation prosthetic biomaterials for abdominal wall repair have been designed to be less dense, by having larger pores than that of the standard polypropylene meshes, to improve abdominal wall compliance. The aim of the present study was to analyze the functional and morphologic properties of these new meshes. For this purpose, 7 x 5 cm(2) defects were created in the anterior abdominal wall of 36 male New Zealand White rabbits and repaired using different polypropylene meshes: a heavyweight mesh (HW), Surgipro, and two lightweight meshes (LW), Parietene and Optilene. Six animals each implanted with biomaterial were sacrificed on postoperative days 14 and 90. Histological and morphometric analysis, adhesion assessment, and biomechanical resistance tests were performed. Similar behavior was shown by the LW and HW meshes in terms of the adhesions and macrophage response induced. After 14 days, the tensile strength of Optilene was greater than the strengths recorded for the other two biomaterials, probably because of its high elasticity. By 90 days, however, the tensile strengths of the three biomaterials were comparable. In conclusion, despite an initial tensile strength advantage shown by the mesh with larger pores, at 90 days postimplant, tensile strengths were similar. Compared with HW, LW prostheses have the benefit that less foreign material was implanted, preserving the elasticity of the recipient host tissue.
Our findings indicate overexpression of the active form of TGFbeta1 in the TF of young patients with direct hernia. This overexpression reflects an attempt to counterbalance the enhanced matrix degradation process observed in these patients, identifying a subset of patients requiring the use of a prosthetic material for primary hernia repair.
Our findings indicate active MMP-2 upregulation in the abdominal skin of patients with direct inguinal hernia. This metalloproteinase plays a role in matrix degradation, weakening the abdominal wall. Skin disorders and previously described transversalis fascia defects in these patients could point to a systemic collagen metabolism abnormality as a risk factor for direct hernia.
Biomaterials have long been used to repair defects in the clinical setting, which has led to the development of a wide variety of new materials tailored to specific therapeutic purposes. The efficiency in the repair of the defect and the safety of the different materials employed are determined not only by the nature and structure of their components, but also by the anatomical site where they will be located. Biomaterial implantation into the abdominal cavity in the form of a surgical mesh, such as in the case of abdominal hernia repair, involves the contact between the foreign material and the peritoneum. This review summarizes the different biomaterials currently available in hernia mesh repair and provides insights into a series of peculiarities that must be addressed when designing the optimal mesh to be used in this interface.
All the prosthetic materials induced good host tissue ingrowth, with no significant differences in tensile strength observed. Our findings suggest that partially absorbable lightweight prostheses could offer advantages over nonabsorbable lightweight meshes since less foreign material persists in the recipient, improving abdominal wall compliance.
Stem cells derived from adult tissues may serve as cell therapy to enhance the healing process in skin wounds. This study was designed to evaluate the use of autologous muscle-derived stem cells in an experimental skin wound model in terms of their efficiency at promoting tissue repair/regeneration. Muscle-derived cells obtained from the dorsal muscle of New Zealand rabbits were cultured in vitro for 2 weeks. The cell population was identified using the satellite markers CD34, m-cadherin and Myf5, and the proliferative capacity of the adult stem cells was determined. The population was then fluorescently labeled with PKH26 and seeded onto a circular 2 cm diameter defect created on the dorsal side of the ear of the rabbit from which the cells had been harvested. Similar defects on the contra lateral ears were left untreated to form the control group. Fourteen days later, specimens were taken for light, transmission, and scanning electron microscopy, as well as for immunolabeling with antibodies against vimentin, alpha-actin, desmin, myosin, fibronectin, and cytokeratin 14. Areas of wound contraction and reepithelialization were determined by image analysis. Wound contraction was significantly greater in the control than the treatment group (p<0.05); control specimens also showed more myosin expression. Reepithelialized areas were significantly greater in the treatment group (p<0.05). Control wounds showed nonepithelialized areas and inflammatory granulation tissue. Reepithelialization occurred as epidermal tongues of fusiform cells. Our findings indicate that the use of autologous stem cells on skin wounds expedites and improves the organism's natural healing process.
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