Despite the considerable progress in the classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs), the lack of an international standard has resulted in variable and confusing diagnostic criteria and terminology. The advent of high-resolution computerized tomography, the narrowed pathologic definition of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and recognition of the prognostic importance of separating UIP from other IIP patterns have profoundly changed the approach to the IIPs. This is an international Consensus Statement defining the clinical manifestations, pathology, and radiologic features of patients with IIP. The major objectives of this statement are to standardize the classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) and to establish a uniform set of definitions and criteria for the diagnosis of IIPs. The targeted specialties are pulmonologists, radiologists, and pathologists. A multidisciplinary core panel was responsible for review of background articles and writing of the document. In addition, this group reviewed the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic aspects of a wide spectrum of cases of diffuse parenchymal interstitial lung diseases to establish a uniform and consistent approach to these diseases and to clarify the terminology, definitions, and descriptions used in routine clinical practice. The final statement was drafted after a series of meetings of the entire committee. The level of evidence for the recommendations made in this statement is largely that of expert opinion developed by consensus. This classification of IIPs includes seven clinico-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. The need for dynamic interaction between pathologists, radiologists, and pulmonologists to accurately diagnose these disorders is emphasized. The level of evidence for the recommendations made in this Statement is largely that of expert opinion developed by consensus. This Statement is an integrated clinical, radiologic, and pathologic approach to the classification of the IIPs. Use of this international multidisciplinary classification will provide a standardized nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for IIP. This Statement provides a framework for the future study of these entities. Key Messages * Unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia : Some cases are unclassifiable for a variety of reasons (see text). † This group represents a heterogeneous group with poorly characterized clinical and radiologic features that needs further study. ‡ COP is the preferred term, but it is synonymous with idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia.
We sought to assess whether the effects of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on lung inflammation and remodeling in experimental emphysema would differ according to MSC source and administration route. Emphysema was induced in C57BL/6 mice by intratracheal (IT) administration of porcine pancreatic elastase (0.1 UI) weekly for 1 month. After the last elastase instillation, saline or MSCs (1×105), isolated from either mouse bone marrow (BM), adipose tissue (AD) or lung tissue (L), were administered intravenously (IV) or IT. After 1 week, mice were euthanized. Regardless of administration route, MSCs from each source yielded: 1) decreased mean linear intercept, neutrophil infiltration, and cell apoptosis; 2) increased elastic fiber content; 3) reduced alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell damage; and 4) decreased keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC, a mouse analog of interleukin-8) and transforming growth factor-β levels in lung tissue. In contrast with IV, IT MSC administration further reduced alveolar hyperinflation (BM-MSC) and collagen fiber content (BM-MSC and L-MSC). Intravenous administration of BM- and AD-MSCs reduced the number of M1 macrophages and pulmonary hypertension on echocardiography, while increasing vascular endothelial growth factor. Only BM-MSCs (IV > IT) increased the number of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, different MSC sources and administration routes variably reduced elastase-induced lung damage, but IV administration of BM-MSCs resulted in better cardiovascular function and change of the macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2.
- Rapid on-site evaluation can ensure that the targeted lesion is being sampled and can enable appropriate specimen triage. If available, it should be used with EBUS-TBNA in the diagnosis of lung cancer because it can minimize repeat procedures for additional desired testing (ie, molecular studies). Some studies have shown that ROSE does not adversely affect the number of aspirations, total procedure time of EBUS-TBNA, or the rate of postprocedure complications; it is also helpful in providing a preliminary diagnosis that can reduce the number of additional invasive procedures, such as mediastinoscopy. As EBUS technology continues to evolve, our knowledge of the role of ROSE in EBUS-TBNA for the diagnosis of lung cancer will also continue to grow and evolve.
Background/Aims-The pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)/usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), a chronic and incurable human respiratory disease, is not well established. This study was designed to investigate whether the apoptosis of type II pneumocytes could be the precipitating factor in the pathogenesis of IPF. Methods-Nineteen specimens obtained by retrospective review of the medical and pathological records of 55 patients with IPF, four normal subjects, and 10 disease control lungs were analysed. The selected specimens had normal alveoli with intervening patchy scarring of the lung parenchyma, fulfilling the pathological criteria for UIP. To identify individual cells undergoing apoptosis in the normal alveoli, electron microscopy and in situ end labelling of fragmented DNA were performed on paraYn wax embedded sections using digoxigenin-11-dUTP and the enzyme terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase. (J Clin Pathol 2001;54:132-138) Results-Apoptosis
The precise role of each nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) isoform in the pathobiology of asthma is not well established. Our objective was to investigate the contribution of constitutive NO synthase (cNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) isoforms to lung mechanics and inflammatory and remodeling responses in an experimental model of chronic allergic pulmonary inflammation. Guinea pigs were submitted to seven ovalbumin exposures with increasing doses (1 approximately 5 mg/ml) for 4 wk. The animals received either chronic L-NAME (N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, in drinking water) or 1,400 W (iNOS-specific inhibitor, intraperitoneal) treatments. At 72 h after the seventh inhalation of ovalbumin solution, animals were anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, exhaled NO was collected, and lung mechanical responses were evaluated before and after antigen challenge. Both L-NAME and 1,400 W treatments increased baseline resistance and decreased elastance of the respiratory system in nonsensitized animals. After challenge, L-NAME increased resistance of the respiratory system and collagen deposition on airways, and decreased peribronchial edema and mononuclear cell recruitment. Administration of 1,400 W reduced resistance of the respiratory system response, eosinophilic and mononuclear cell recruitment, and collagen and elastic fibers content in airways. L-NAME treatment reduced both iNOS- and neuronal NOS-positive eosinophils, and 1,400 W diminished only the number of eosinophils expressing iNOS. In this experimental model, inhibition of NOS-derived NO by L-NAME treatment amplifies bronchoconstriction and increases collagen deposition. However, blockage of only iNOS attenuates bronchoconstriction and inflammatory and remodeling processes.
The advent of targeted therapy in lung cancer has heralded a paradigm shift in the practice of cytopathology with the need for accurately subtyping lung carcinoma, as well as providing adequate material for molecular studies, to help guide clinical and therapeutic decisions. The variety and versatility of cytologic-specimen preparations offer significant advantages to molecular testing; however, they frequently remain underused. Therefore, evaluating the utility and adequacy of cytologic specimens is critical, not only from a lung cancer diagnosis standpoint but also for the myriad ancillary studies that are necessary to provide appropriate clinical management. A large fraction of lung cancers are diagnosed by aspiration or exfoliative cytology specimens, and thus, optimizing strategies to triage and best use the tissue for diagnosis and biomarker studies forms a critical component of lung cancer management. This review focuses on the opportunities and challenges of using cytologic specimens for molecular diagnosis of lung cancer and the role of cytopathology in the molecular era.
To test whether pulmonary and extrapulmonary acute lung injury (ALI) of identical mechanical compromise would express diverse morphological patterns and immunological pathways. For this purpose, a model of pulmonary (p) and extrapulmonary (exp) ALI with similar functional changes was developed and pulmonary morphology (light and electron microscopy), cytokines levels, and neutrophilic infiltration in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), elastic and collagen fiber content in the alveolar septa, and neutrophil apoptosis in the lung parenchyma were analyzed. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. In control groups, saline was intratracheally (it, 0.05 ml) instilled and intraperitoneally (ip, 0.5 ml) injected, respectively. In the ALIp and ALIexp groups, mice received E. coli lipopolysaccharide (10 microg it and 125 microg ip, respectively). The changes in lung resistive and viscoelastic pressures and in static elastance, alveolar collapse, and cell content in lung tissue were similar in the ALIp and ALIexp groups. The ALIp group presented a threefold increase in KC (murine function homolog to IL-8) and IL-10 levels in the BALF in relation to ALIexp, whereas IL-6 level showed a twofold increase in ALIp. Neutrophils in the BALF were more frequent in ALIp than in ALIexp. ALIp showed more extensive injury of alveolar epithelium, intact capillary endothelium, and apoptotic neutrophils, whereas the ALIexp group presented interstitial edema and intact type I and II cells and endothelial layer. In conclusion, given the same pulmonary mechanical dysfunction independently of the etiology of ALI, insult in pulmonary epithelium yielded more pronounced inflammatory responses, which induce ultrastructural morphological changes.
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