O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade tecnológica e sensorial do uso da farinha de aveia em mistura com farinha de trigo (0, 15, 30 e 45% de adição) na elaboração de bolos. A farinha de aveia apresentou maior granulometria que a de trigo, de modo que maior quantidade dessa farinha nas formulações eleva a retenção de partículas nas peneiras utilizadas. Foi observado pela análise farinográfica que a absorção de água e o tempo necessário para formação de massa homogênea e estável às condições de mistura aumentaram com o incremento no teor de farinha de aveia. A densidade das massas cruas aumentou com a adição da farinha de aveia, sendo o oposto observado para o volume do bolo. A análise sensorial revelou que as formulações com 0% e 30% de farinha de aveia foram as mais aceitas pelos consumidores. O emprego de 30% de farinha de aveia não modificou a aceitação dos atributos sabor, textura e impressão global do bolo, sendo viável a utilização dessa porcentagem para substituição parcial da farinha de trigo na elaboração de bolos.
Quasielastic neutron scattering measurements were performed in hydrated samples of ds-DNA and ss-DNA. The samples were hydrated in a high relative humidity atmosphere, and their final water content was 0.559 g H(2)O/g ds-DNA and 0.434 g H(2)O/g ss-DNA. The measurements were performed at 8 and 5.2 A for the ds-DNA sample, and at 5.2 A for the ss-DNA sample. The temperature was in both cases 298 K. Analysis of the obtained data indicates that in the ds-DNA sample we can distinguish two types of protons-those belonging to water molecules strongly attached to the ds-DNA surface and another fraction belonging to water that diffuses isotropically in a sphere of radius 2.8 A, with a local diffusion coefficient of 2.2 x 10(-5) cm(2) s(-1). For ss-DNA, on the other hand, no indication was found of motionally restricted or confined water. Further, the fraction of protons strongly attached to the ds-DNA surface corresponds to 0.16 g H(2)O/g ds-DNA, which equals the amount of water that is released by ds-DNA upon thermal denaturation, as studied by one of us (G.M.) by differential scanning calorimetry. This value also equals the difference between the critical hydration values of ds-DNA and ss-DNA, also determined by DSC. These results represent, thus, a completely independent measurement of water characteristics and behavior in ds- and ss-DNA at critical hydration values, and therefore substantiate the previous suggestions/conclusions of the results obtained by calorimetry.
A polpa de manga (Mangifera indica L.) tem grande importância como matéria-prima em indústrias de conservas de frutas, que podem produzi-las durante as épocas de safra, armazená-las e reprocessá-las em períodos mais propícios, ou segundo a demanda do mercado consumidor, como doces em massa, geléias, sucos e néctares. Ao mesmo tempo também são comercializadas para outras indústrias que utilizam a polpa de fruta como parte da formulação de iogurtes, doces, biscoitos, bolos, sorvetes, refrescos e alimentos infantis.No Brasil, a legislação (BRASIL, 2000) que trata de polpa ou purês é direcionada ao consumo como bebida, ou seja, avaliado com base nos indicadores do suco de manga. A polpa de frutas é definida como o produto não fermentado, não concentrado, não diluído, obtido de frutos polposos, através de processo tecnológico adequado, com um teor mínimo de sólidos totais proveniente da parte comestível do fruto, devendo apresentar cor amarela, sabor doce, levemente ácido, além de sabor e aroma próprios da fruta.O Regulamento Técnico para Fixação dos Padrões de Identidade e Qualidade para Polpa de Manga (BRASIL, 2000) estabelece parâmetros físico-químicos e microbiológicos como: pH mínimo de 3,30 e máximo de 4,50; sólidos solúveis totais em AbstractUbá mango (Mangifera indicates L. var. Ubá) has excellent flavor qualities and a tasty, yellow and succulent pulp. It contains a high content of soluble solids, around 14 °Brix, acidity of 0.2% as citric acid and ratio 70, besides being rich in potassium and vitamins A and C. The fruit has soft and short fibers, and can be consumed fresh or be industrialized, especially for the production of pulp and juice. This variety possesses an excellent industrialization yield, by greatly reducing processing, with a consequent reduction in the final production costs. Ubá mango supplied to a pulp and juice agroindustry in the Zona da Mata Mineira area had its quality determined through fruit and pulp analyses. During the 2003/2004 harvest period, the Dirty Mangos (DM), as were denominated the fruits that arrived at the industry, presented an average initial count of 7.34 log CFU mesophyllic aerobics/mango. After cleaning, the fruits were called Clean Mangos (CM), and had an average of 5.62 log CFU/mango, presenting an average reduction of 1.72 log cycles. In the 2004/2005 harvest period, the DM presented an average initial count of 7.02 log CFU mesophyllic aerobics/mango and the CM, an average of 5.76 log CFU/mango, with an average reduction of 1.52 log cycles. The mango pulp presented values for pH, total soluble solids, total acidity, total soluble solids/total acidity ratio, total solids and total soluble sugars, in accordance with the legislation requirements. The color coordinates presented values indicating that the pulp has a yellow-orange characteristic color. Keywords: Ubá mango; physical; physico-chemical and microbiological characterisations. ResumoA manga Ubá (Mangifera indica L. variedade Ubá) possui excelentes qualidades de sabor e aroma, além de sua polpa ser amarelada,...
Leptospirosis is an endemic disease in Latin America, caused by pathogenic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is considered one of the main causes responsible for the negative economic impact on global livestock by causing reproductive problems. The research aimed to determine the prevalence of leptospirosis in cattle, sheep, and goats at consorted rearing in the micro-region of Teresina, Piauí state, northeastern Brazil, as well as to identify prevalent serovars and risk factors associated with seroprevalence. Serum samples were analyzed in 336 sheep, 292 goats, and 253 cattle using microscopic agglutination test (MAT). Overall, 378 samples were positive to MAT, with seroprevalence of 42.9%. The prevalences in cattle, sheep, and goats were 50.5, 40.5, and 34.6%, respectively. All herds presented at least one seropositive animal; the Hardjo/Wolffi serovar association was the most common in cattle and Icterohaemorrhagiae in goats and sheep. Beef production (OR = 4.9), cattle herd over 35 animals (OR = 4.0), feeding on pasture (OR = 6.4), weir and/or stream as water source (OR = 2.1), and no veterinary services (OR = 2.9) were risk factors for cattle infection. For sheep, intensive management system (OR = 5.3), suspended slatted facilities (OR = 2.2), more than 20 sheep in reproductive age (OR = 1.9), and absence of deworming (OR = 3.5) were the risk factors, while for goats, the identified risk factors were sheep herd over 52 animals (OR = 1.9) and no veterinary services (OR = 1.8). We conclude that the infection was spreading in consorted herds in this region. Thus, it would be interesting and important to conduct educative activities to farmers on the economic impacts of this disease and the need of preventive and control strategies mainly focused on sanitary measures and animal handling.
-This study evaluated the proximate components, concentration of total polyphenols, antioxidant activity, and capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin in the Cumari chili pepper from Pará, Brazil (Capsicum chinense Jacqui) both fresh and after subjected to three different drying temperatures. The results showed that the contents of ash and vitamin C for the dried pepper differed significantly (P <0.05) compared with the fresh pepper. There was a significant difference in concentrations of total phenolics, antioxidant activity and capsaicinoids between the fresh pepper and those submitted to the drying treatments. It was concluded that higher temperatures increase shelf life and decrease the volume of the product, preserve macronutrients and degrade micronutrients, antioxidants and the spicy hotness of the Cumari pepper.
Summary The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and to identify the risk factors associated with Leptospira spp. infection in technified pig farms in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. To compose sample for the prevalence study, 342 pigs were used (312 sows and 30 boars) proceeding from seven swine farms distributed in five districts of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. The infection’s serological diagnosis was performed by microscopic agglutination test. The risk factors analysis was performed using research questionnaires consisting of objective questions related to the breeder, the general characteristics of the property, and the productive, reproductive and sanitary management. Prevalence of 16.1% (55/342) of pigs seropositive was obtained. The associated risk factors were not performing quarantine (P = 0.003, OR = 5.43, CI = 1.79–16.41) and the use of artificial insemination (P = 0.023, OR = 3.38, CI = 1.18–9.66). A significant association of sow infection with the increased number of stillborn and mummified foetuses was found, as well as with the increased frequency of oestrus recurrence and the increased weaning‐to‐oestrus interval of seropositive sows. One might state that Leptospira spp. infection is disseminated in technified pig farms in the State of Alagoas, favouring reproductive failures and the impairment of zootechnical performance in these properties. The risk factors identified in this study are facilitators in the infecting agent dissemination and should be adjusted to control the disease in the herds studied.
This study was conducted to determine leptospirosis seroprevalence in sheep and their spatial distribution as well as identify risk factors associated with seropositivity in sheep from 37 herds and 11 municipalities in the Presidente Dutra microregion, Maranhão state, Brazil. We analyzed 379 blood serum samples using a Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The individual seroprevalence was 32%. Of the 37 herds studied, 30 (81%, 95% CI 69-94%) had at least one seropositive animal. In seven municipalities, we observed infection in 100% of the herds. The serovars recorded were Grippotyphosa (67%), Wollfi with Hardjo (9%), Bratislava (9%), Hardjo (5%), Icterohaemorrhagiae (5%), Pomona (2%), Castellonis (2%) and Copenhageni (0.8%). We concluded that the Leptospira spp. in sheep is widespread in the area of sheep farms in Maranhão state, and a risk factor is the animals' water source.
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