RESUMO -Avaliou-se neste trabalho a influência de herbicidas nas características fisiológicas de três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar. O experimento foi conduzido no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, no esquema fatorial 3 x 8. O fator A foi composto por três cultivares de cana-de-açúcar (RB867515, RB855156 e SP80-1816), e o B, pelos herbicidas (tembotrione, MSMA, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, tebuthiuron, clomazone) e uma testemunha sem uso de herbicidas. A taxa transpiratória das plantas do cultivar RB867515 foi afetada negativamente quando foram aplicados os herbicidas sulfentrazone, tebuthiuron e clomazone em comparação à testemunha. Com relação à eficiência do uso da água, não se observaram diferenças entre os cultivares e a aplicação de herbicidas. A condutância estomática dos cultivares RB867515 e SP80-1816 não foi alterada pelos herbicidas aplicados. Apenas o cultivar RB867515 apresentou taxa fotossintética menor quando se aplicou o sulfentrazone. Os herbicidas testados afetam de forma diferenciada as características fisiológicas nos três cultivares avaliados. O cultivar RB867515 foi o que apresentou menor variação na taxa fotossintética na presença dos produtos testados, em relação à testemunha.Palavras-chave: taxa fotossintética, Saccharum spp., seletividade a herbicidas.ABSTRACT -This work aimed to evaluate the influence of herbicides on the physiological characteristics of three sugarcane cultivars. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with three replications in a factorial design 3 x 8. Factor A was constituted of three sugarcane cultivars (RB867515, RB855156, and SP80-1816), and factor B of the herbicides tembotrione, MSMA, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, tebuthiuron, clomazone, and a treatment without herbicide (control). The transpiration rate of cultivar RB867515 plants was negatively affected when sulfentrazone, clomazone, and tebuthiuron were applied,compared to the control. Regarding water use efficiency, no differences were observed between the cultivars and the herbicides. Stomatal conductance of cultivars RB867515 and SP80-1816 was not affected by the herbicides. Only cultivar RB867515 presented lower photosynthetic rate when sulfentrazone was applied. The herbicides tested had distinct effects on the physiological characteristics of the three cultivars evaluated. Cultivar RB867515 showed the least variation in photosynthetic rate in the presence of the products tested, as compared to the control.
-Glyphosate is a non-selective herbicide used for weed control in eucalyptus forests. Glyphosate drifts are common and may cause serious damage to crops. An alternative to reduce such effects is to use antidotes capable of protecting eucalyptus. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of the application of liquid fertilizer on eucalyptus plants subjected to a glyphosate drift simulation. The treatments were arranged in a 5 x 5 factorial design. The first corresponding factor was liquid fertilizer (0, 1, 2, 4, and 8 L c.p. ha -1 of Fertiactyl Pós ® ) and the second factor dose of glyphosate drift (0, 360, 720, 1,440, and 2,160 g e.a. ha -1 ). The products were applied together so that the spray did not reach the upper third of the plants. At 7, 28, and 49 days after application (DAA), the percentage of intoxication of eucalyptus was evaluated. At 56 days DAA, height, leaf area, leaf nutrient contents, and shoot and root dry matter were determined. Higher doses of glyphosate (1,440 and 2,160 g ha -1 ) caused intoxication levels above 90% at 28 and 49 DAA without using liquid fertilizer. The combination of 2,160 g ha -1 of glyphosate with 8.0 L ha -1 of liquid fertilizer resulted in an estimated eucalyptus dry matter 7% higher than in the control and 97% higher than using 2,160 g ha -1 of glyphosate without the liquid fertilizer. We conclude that the liquid fertilizer was effective in suppressing the harmful effects caused by glyphosate on eucalyptus plants. Keywords
RESUMO -Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, avaliar o crescimento e o rendimento do milho e da braquiária em monocultivos e consorciados, com diferentes manejos das plantas daninhas. O experimento foi realizado em área de pastagem degradada, num Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo distrófico. Os tratamentos foram arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 5, sendo o primeiro fator correspondente aos cultivares de milho (UFV M100, DKB 390, DKB 455 e DKB 789) em consórcio com Urochloa brizantha, combinados com os diferentes manejos de plantas daninhas -capinado; sem controle de plantas daninhas; atrazine (1,5 kg ha -1); e atrazine + nicosulfuron (1,5 kg ha -1 + 8 g ha -1 ) -, além dos monocultivos capinados de U. brizantha e dos quatro cultivares de milho. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Aos 30, 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias após o plantio (DAP), avaliou-se a matéria seca do milho e da braquiária; na última avaliação, determinou-se, também, o rendimento de grãos do milho. Os maiores acúmulos de matéria seca e rendimentos foram obtidos nos monocultivos da braquiária e do milho. No entanto, a aplicação de atrazine + nicosulfuron no consórcio proporcionou rendimento de grãos de milho similar ao obtido no monocultivo. Os efeitos dos manejos das plantas daninhas e dos cultivares de milho no crescimento da braquiária somente se manifestaram nas avaliações realizadas aos 90, 120 e 150 DAP. Os híbridos de milho mostraram-se mais competitivos com a braquiária do que a variedade; o maior rendimento de grãos foi obtido com o híbrido simples (DKB 390), e o menor, com o híbrido triplo (DKB 455). A interferência de U. brizantha no milho, quando cultivados em consórcio, depende das práticas de manejo de plantas daninhas e do cultivar de milho adotado. Palavras-chave:Zea mays, Urochloa brizantha, plantio direto, herbicida. (UFV M100, DKB 390, DKB 455, and DKB 789) in consortium with Urochloa Brizantha, with different weed managements (weeded; no weed control; atrazine (1.5 kg ha -1 ) and atrazine + nicosulfuron (1.5 kg ha -1 + 8 g ha ABSTRACT -The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth and yield of maize and brachiaria mono-and inter-cropping systems with different weed managements. The experiment was conducted in a degraded pasture area in a dystrophic Oxisol. Treatments were arranged in a factorial 4 x 4 + 5, with the first factor corresponding to maize cultivars), in addition to U. brizantha weeded monocultures and four maize cultivars. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. At 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 (DKB 390) and the lowest with the triple hybrid (DKB 455). The interference of U. brizantha in maize depends on the management of the weed practices adopted.
-Brazil is the world's leading producer of passion fruit. However, for this crop, there are no records of herbicides for weed control. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of herbicide application after transplanting of yellow passion fruit seedlings during growth and phytotoxicity of the crop. Twenty-one herbicides with different mechanisms of action were tested by application at 35 days after transplanting (DAT). Phytotoxicity of the crop by the herbicides was evaluated at 63 DAT, and assessments of damage to seedlings were held at 70 days DAT. No herbicide caused damage to the root system of the passion fruit plants. The herbicides glyphosate, imazapic, metsulfuron-methyl and glufosinate-ammonium reduced plant height gain. The herbicides atrazine, linuron, metribuzin, diuron, tebuthiuron and bentazon reduced leaf dry matter, stem dry matter and total dry matter of the plants. Fluazifop-p-butyl reduced height gain and leaf dry matter. Herbicides that caused the greatest damage to seedling growth also caused the greatest phytotoxicity. The herbicides oxadiazon, fenoxaprop-ethyl, tembotrione, chlorimuron-ethyl and isoxaflutole did not hinder growth and did not intoxicate the seedlings; they were the most promising for use in the total area. Keywords: Passiflora edulis; selectivity; weeds Resumo -O Brasil é o principal produtor de maracujá do mundo, todavia, para esta cultura não existe registro de herbicidas no controle de plantas daninhas. Sendo assim, o objetivo deste experimento foi avaliar os efeitos da aplicação de herbicidas após o transplantio de mudas de maracujá amarelo no crescimento e intoxicação da cultura. Foram testados 21 herbicidas de diferentes mecanismos de ação aplicados aos 35 dias após transplantio (DAT). Aos 63 dias DAT foram avaliadas as intoxicações causadas pelos herbicidas na cultura, e aos 70 dias DAT foram realizadas as avaliações dos danos causados às mudas. Nenhum herbicida causou danos ao sistema radicular das plantas de maracujá. Os herbicidas glifosate, imazapic, metsulfuron-methyl e amonioglufosinate, causaram reduções no ganho em altura das plantas. Os herbicidas atrazine, linuron,
-The objective of this study was to optimize and validate the solid-liquid extraction (ESL) technique for determination of picloram residues in soil samples. At the optimization stage, the optimal conditions for extraction of soil samples were determined using univariate analysis. Ratio soil/solution extraction, type and time of agitation, ionic strength and pH of extraction solution were evaluated. Based on the optimized parameters, the following method of extraction and analysis of picloram was developed: weigh 2.00 g of soil dried and sieved through a sieve mesh of 2.0 mm pore, add 20.0 mL of KCl concentration of 0.5 mol L -1, shake the bottle in the vortex for 10 seconds to form suspension and adjust to pH 7.00, with alkaline KOH 0.1 mol L -1. Homogenate the system in a shaker system for 60 minutes and then let it stand for 10 minutes. The bottles are centrifuged for 10 minutes at 3,500 rpm. After the settlement of the soil particles and cleaning of the supernatant extract, an aliquot is withdrawn and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. The optimized method was validated by determining the selectivity, linearity, detection and quantification limits, precision and accuracy. The ESL methodology was efficient for analysis of residues of the pesticides studied, with percentages of recovery above 90%. The limits of detection and quantification were 20.0 and 66.0 mg kg -1 soil for the PVA, and 40.0 and 132.0 mg kg -1 soil for the VLA. The coefficients of variation (CV) were equal to 2.32 and 2.69 for PVA and TH soils, respectively. The methodology resulted in low organic solvent consumption and cleaner extracts, as well as no purification steps for chromatographic analysis were required. The parameters evaluated in the validation process indicated that the ESL methodology is efficient for the extraction of picloram residues in soils, with low limits of detection and quantification.Keywords: ESL, testing, waste, herbicide.RESUMO -O objetivo deste trabalho foi otimizar e validar a técnica extração sólido-líquido (ESL) para a determinação de resíduos do herbicida picloram em amostras de solos. Na etapa de otimização, as condições ideais para extração em amostras de solo foram determinadas de forma univariada. Foram avaliados a proporção solo/solução extratora, o tipo e tempo de agitação, a força iônica e o pH da solução extratora. A partir dos parâmetros otimizados, a seguinte metodologia de extração e análise do picloram foi desenvolvida: pesar 2,00 g de solo seco ao ar e passado por uma peneira de malha de 2,0 mm de poro, adicionar 20,0 mL de solução de KCl na concentração de 0,5 mol L -1 , agitar o frasco em agitador vortex por 10 segundos para a formação da suspensão e ajustar o pH desta para 7,00, com solução alcalina KOH 0,1 mol L -1 . Homogeneizar o sistema em agitador vertical por 60 minutos e, posteriormente, deixar em repouso por 10 minutos. Em seguida, os frascos são centrifugados por 10 minutos a 3.500 rpm. Após decantação das partículas do solo e limpeza do extrato sobrenadante, ...
-The chemical control of weed is a necessary practice in large-scale agriculture. However, when herbicides are used in the wrong way, they can remain into soil for long periods and/or be leached in its profile, and they may even contaminate groundwater. In this research, clomazone leaching in soil samples collected from different Brazilian regions was estimated by biological method. To do so, columns containing soils were used, and samples were collected every 5 cm. After preparing columns and applying a 1,500 g a.i. ha -1 clomazone dose, rain simulation was performed. Sorghum was used in order to detect the herbicide. More than 60% similarity was found for the studied variables; it was chosen to use only data referring to toxicity percentage. Clomazone did not cause reduction in sorghum cultivated in Organosol, thus indicating a strong herbicide sorption in this soil. Increased pH in Oxisol reduced leaching. More rainfall caused increased herbicide leaching in Oxisol (pH 5.1) and Quartzarenic Neosol. The highest leaching occurred in soils with lower pH and lower organic matter content. It is possible to conclude that, in soils with higher organic matter content, clomazone has lower risks of being leached.Keywords: herbicide, mobility in soil, environmental impact. RESUMO -O controle químico das plantas daninhas é prática consolidada na
Pre-emergence herbicides, such as indaziflam, have agronomic efficiency when available in the soil solution, mainly in the superficial layer (0-10 cm), the region with the highest concentration of weed seed bank. However, information about the sorption of indaziflam in Brazilian soils still is scarce, since most studies available in the literature were conducted in soils of temperate regions. The objective of this study was to estimate the sorption of indaziflam using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and bioassay in a Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo (Oxisol) and in a Cambissolo (Inceptisol), at pH values of 5.1 and 6.1. In the biossay, Sorghum bicolor was used as an indicator plant. Quantitative indaziflam data were obtained by HPLC, and the sorption and desorption coefficients were determined in the soils using Freundlich isotherms. Increasing the pH of the two soils from 5.1 to 6.1 resulted in reductions of C50 and sorption coefficient values. Desorption, a parameter estimated only by HPLC, showed an inverse behavior to that of sorption, that is, the lowest desorption was observed in the condition of highest sorption. It is concluded that the increase in pH of the studied soils reduces indaziflam sorption, influencing the recommendations of this herbicide, from both the agronomic and the environmental points of view. When the goal is to verify the presence or absence of indaziflam in the studied soils, the bioassay technique has satisfactory efficiency. Chromatographic assay is necessary when quantifying the concentration of this herbicide in the soil.
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