Control of the swing limb was associated with the degree of impairment and disability. Larger and more random variability of peak shank angular velocity may indicate decreased ADL ability in patients with knee OA.
The biomechanical mechanism of lateral trunk lean gait employed to reduce external knee adduction moment (KAM) for knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients is not well known. This mechanism may relate to the center of mass (COM) motion. Moreover, lateral trunk lean gait may affect motor control of the COM displacement. Uncontrolled manifold (UCM) analysis is an evaluation index used to understand motor control and variability of the motor task. Here we aimed to clarify the biomechanical mechanism to reduce KAM during lateral trunk lean gait and how motor variability controls the COM displacement. Twenty knee OA patients walked under two conditions: normal and lateral trunk lean gait conditions. UCM analysis was performed with respect to the COM displacement in the frontal plane. We also determined how the variability is structured with regards to the COM displacement as a performance variable. The peak KAM under lateral trunk lean gait was lower than that under normal gait. The reduced peak KAM observed was accompanied by medially shifted knee joint center, shortened distance of the center of pressure to knee joint center, and shortened distance of the knee-ground reaction force lever arm during the stance phase. Knee OA patients with lateral trunk lean gait could maintain kinematic synergy by utilizing greater segmental configuration variance to the performance variable. However, the COM displacement variability of lateral trunk lean gait was larger than that of normal gait. Our findings may provide clinical insights to effectively evaluate and prescribe gait modification training for knee OA patients.
Lateral wedge insoles (LWIs) are prescribed for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis to reduce the external knee adduction moment (KAM). However, the biomechanical effects of LWIs are limited in some patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the biomechanical effects of LWIs depend on individual foot alignment and to examine the relationship between change in KAM and changes in foot and ankle biomechanics when wearing LWIs. Twenty-one patients participated in this study. They were categorized into normal or abnormal foot groups based on the foot posture index (FPI). All patients were requested to perform a normal gait under barefoot and LWI conditions. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to record 1st and 2nd KAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), center of pressure displacement, and knee-ground reaction force lever arm. Furthermore, the foot and ankle frontal plane kinematic parameters were evaluated. The 1st KAM was significantly reduced under the LWI condition compared to that under the barefoot condition in the normal foot group. In contrast, there was no significant difference in 1st KAM between both conditions in the abnormal foot group. Decreased rear foot eversion strongly correlated with reduction in the 1st KAM in the normal foot group. These findings suggested that it is helpful to assess individual foot alignment to ensure adequate insole treatment for patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and that decreased rear foot eversion during the early stance phase is significantly involved in the reduction of 1st KAM when wearing LWIs with normal feet.
A 69-year-old woman, who had been diagnosed as having Sjögren's syndrome at 37 years old and mixed connective tissue disease at 42 years old, was under treatment with oral prednisolone. In 2009, she was diagnosed as having active systemic lupus erythematosus, and started on treatment with tacrolimus at 3 mg/day. In 2010, para-aortic lymphadenopathy and superficial multiple lymphadenopathy were detected. Tacrolimus was discontinued. Axillary lymph node biopsy revealed Epstein-Barr (EB) virus-negative CD5-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The patient was classified into clinical stage IIIA and as being at high risk according to the international prognostic index. After the discontinuation of tacrolimus, the lymph nodes reduced temporarily in size. In January 2011, the lymphadenopathy increased again, and the patient received a total of 8 courses of therapy with rituximab, pirarubicin, vincristine, cyclophosphamide and prednisolone, followed by intrathecal injection to prevent central nervous system infiltration, which was followed by complete remission. In February 2012, fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography showed relapse in multiple lymph nodes and central nervous system infiltration. The patient was considered to have iatrogenic lymphoproliferative disorder classified as "other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated lymphoproliferative disorders" by the WHO, and this is the first reported case of CD5-positive DLBCL and central nervous system infiltration following administration of the drug. The patient was considered to have a poor prognosis as EB virus was negative, discontinuation of tacrolimus was ineffective and there was evidence of central nervous system infiltration. 〔J Clin Exp Hematopathol 52(3) : 211-218, 2012〕
[Purpose] Lateral wedge insoles reduce the peak external knee adduction moment and are
advocated for patients with knee osteoarthritis. However, some patients demonstrate
adverse biomechanical effects with treatment. In this study, we examined the immediate
effects of lateral and medial wedge insoles under unilateral weight bearing. [Subjects and
Methods] Thirty healthy young adults participated in this study. The subjects were
assessed by using the foot posture index, and were divided into three groups: normal foot,
pronated foot, and supinated foot groups. The knee adduction moment and knee-ground
reaction force lever arm under the studied conditions were measured by using a
three-dimensional motion capture system and force plates. [Results] In the normal and
pronated groups, the change in knee adduction moment significantly decreased under the
lateral wedge insole condition compared with the medial wedge insole condition. In the
normal group, the change in the knee-ground reaction force lever arm also significantly
decreased under the lateral wedge insole condition than under the medial wedge insole
condition. [Conclusion] Lateral wedge insoles significantly reduced the knee adduction
moment and knee-ground reaction force lever arm during unilateral weight bearing in
subjects with normal feet, and the biomechanical effects varied according to individual
Prolonged computer work and smartphone use can cause stiffness of the neck and shoulder muscles, including the trapezius muscle. Hence, muscle hardness quantification is clinically beneficial. The present study aimed to examine the reliability of trapezius muscle hardness measurement using a portable muscle hardness meter and ultrasound strain elastography. Overall, 20 healthy young men participated in this study. Prior to measurement, the participant’s subjective symptoms, particularly shoulder muscle stiffness, were rated using an 11-point verbal scale. Furthermore, hardness of the right and left upper trapezius muscles was assessed. In the strain elastography assessment, muscle hardness was evaluated using strain ratio. Results showed that, in quantifying upper trapezius muscle hardness, both portable muscle hardness meter and strain elastography had an excellent intra-tester reliability (>0.9). However, the correlation coefficients between muscle hardness values assessed using a muscle hardness meter and those evaluated with strain elastography did not significantly differ, and the scores for subjective shoulder stiffness did not correspond to muscle hardness values. Therefore, the hardness of the trapezius muscle does not directly reflect the subjective shoulder stiffness. Future studies should thoroughly examine the location of the shoulder stiffness, and check whether it is accompanied by local pain or tenderness.
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