Aim Plants in islands have often evolved through adaptive radiation, providing the classical model of evolution of closely related species each with strikingly different morphological and ecological features and with low levels of genetic divergence. We emphasize the importance of an alternative (anagenetic) model of evolution, whereby a single island endemic evolves from a progenitor and slowly builds up genetic variation through time. Location Continental and oceanic islands. Methods We surveyed 2640 endemic angiosperm species in 13 island systems of the world, both oceanic and continental, for anagenetic and cladogenetic patterns of speciation. Genetic data were evaluated from a progenitor and derivative species pair in Ullung Island, Korea, and Japan. Results We show that the anagenetic model of evolution is much more important in oceanic islands than previously believed, accounting for levels of endemic specific diversity from 7% in the Hawaiian Islands to 88% in Ullung Island, Korea, with a mean for all islands of 25%. Examination of an anagenetically derived endemic species in Ullung Island reveals genetic (amplified fragment length polymorphism) variation equal or nearly equal to that of its continental progenitor. Main conclusions We hypothesize that, during anagenetic speciation, initial founder populations proliferate, and then accumulate genetic variation slowly through time by mutation and recombination in a relatively uniform environment, with drift and/or selection yielding genetic and morphological divergence sufficient for the recognition of new species. Low‐elevation islands with low habitat heterogeneity are highly correlated with high levels of anagenetic evolution, allowing prediction of levels of the two models of evolution from these data alone. Both anagenetic and adaptive radiation models of speciation are needed to explain the observed levels of specific and genetic diversity in oceanic islands.
The basic chromosome number in the majority of Indian taxa (belonging to subgenus Curcuma) is x = 7; published counts correspond to 6x, 9x, 11x, 12x and 15x ploidy levels. Only a few species-specific C-values were found, but karyological and/or flow cytometric data may support taxonomic decisions in some species alliances with morphological similarities. Close evolutionary relationships among some cytotypes are suggested based on the similarity in homoploid genome sizes and geographical grouping. A new species combination, Curcuma scaposa (Nimmo) Skornick. & M. Sabu, comb. nov., is proposed.
Curcuma comprises 120 species that occur throughout tropical and subtropical Asia. The taxonomy of the genus is haunted by polyploid speciation and homoploid hybridization, making it the most challenging genus in Zingibereae (Zingiberaceae). Curcuma is best known for turmeric (C. longa), but numerous species are extensively used as medicinal plants, ornamentals, and sources of starch, among many other uses. The delimitation of the genus has been a matter of dispute since its establishment by Linnaeus (1753), and further conflict has arisen from recent molecular and morphological studies suggesting either paraphyly of Curcuma or the necessity to broaden the genus to include four small genera (Laosanthus, Paracautleya, Stahlianthus, Smithatris) as well as several species currently placed in Kaempferia and Hitchenia. All previous infrageneric classifications were based on limited material that did not include species from the Indochinese f loristic region, and these classifications are unable to unequivocally accommodate all currently known members of the genus. To test the monophyly and delimitation of Curcuma and to gain more insight into infrageneric relationships, three plastid regions (trnL–trnF, psbA–trnH, matK) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA were sequenced. Fifty Curcuma species covering the morphological and geographic variation of the genus and 12 Curcuma–like species currently or previously treated as members of other genera were included in this study. In addition, four Zingibereae and three other Zingiberaceae species were used as outgroups. The results of maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses clearly support a broad generic boundary for Curcuma, with inclusion of Laosanthus, Paracautleya, Stahlianthus, Smithatris and some species of Kaempferia and Hitchenia (K. scaposa, K. candida, H. caulina, H. glauca). Four main groups in Curcuma s.l. were detected, and their importance for classification at the subgenus level is discussed. A new infrageneric classification is proposed here with a formal description of a new subgenus. Cloning uncovered a broad range of variation of ITS sequences within individuals, particularly in the terminal ‘Curcuma’ group containing representatives of the nominal subgenus Curcuma. This ‘intra–individual ITS polymorphism’ increases with ploidy level and is coupled with preferred vegetative reproduction. Additional studies are needed to further uncover highly complex relationships in this subgenus.
The tropical ginger genus Amomum (Zingiberaceae) has always posed challenges for classification based on morphological characters. Previous molecular phylogenetic studies showed Amomum to be paraphyletic but limited sampling and absence of the data of the type Amomum subulatum made it impossible to resolve the paraphyly and make nomenclatural changes. Here, Amomum is further investigated in a multi–marker phylogenetic framework using matK and nrITS including multiple accessions of the type, the genus Elettaria and additional accessions of Amomum, Alpinia, Elettariopsis, Geocharis, Geostachys and Hornstedtia. Amomum is shown to consist of nine clades and Alpinia of six. The genera Elettaria, Elettariopsis, Plagiostachys, and species in Hornstedtia are nested within these clades. Morphological studies of species previously subsumed in Amomum support recognition of new genera that correspond to well–delimited clades in the phylogenetic framework presented here. Recircumscription of the paraphyletic genus Amomum facilitates identification and creates nomenclatural stability. Three genera, Conamomum, Meistera and Wurfbainia, are resurrected, and three new genera Epiamomum, Lanxangia and Sundamomum are described, together with a key to the genera and a nomenclatural synopsis placing 384 specific names (incl. all synonyms) into the new generic framework. Of these 129 represent new combinations and 3 are replacement names. Types of Geocharis and Geostachys are designated. Further studies and specific sampling will be needed to resolve other branches of Alpinioideae containing other polyphyletic genera.
Polyploidization is one of the leading forces in the evolution of land plants, providing opportunities for instant speciation and rapid gain of evolutionary novelties. Highly selective conditions of serpentine environments act as an important evolutionary trigger that can be involved in various speciation processes. Whereas the significance of both edaphic speciation on serpentine and polyploidy is widely acknowledged in plant evolution, the links between polyploid evolution and serpentine differentiation have not yet been examined. To fill this gap, we investigated the evolutionary history of the perennial herb Knautia arvensis (Dipsacaceae), a diploid-tetraploid complex that exhibits an intriguing pattern of eco-geographic differentiation. Using plastid DNA sequencing and AFLP genotyping of 336 previously cytotyped individuals from 40 populations from central Europe, we unravelled the patterns of genetic variation among the cytotypes and the edaphic types. Diploids showed the highest levels of genetic differentiation, likely as a result of long term persistence of several lineages in ecologically distinct refugia and/or independent immigration. Recurrent polyploidization, recorded in one serpentine island, seems to have opened new possibilities for the local serpentine genotype. Unlike diploids, the serpentine tetraploids were able to escape from the serpentine refugium and spread further; this was also attributable to hybridization with the neighbouring non-serpentine tetraploid lineages. The spatiotemporal history of K. arvensis allows tracing the interplay of polyploid evolution and ecological divergence on serpentine, resulting in a complex evolutionary pattern. Isolated serpentine outcrops can act as evolutionary capacitors, preserving distinct karyological and genetic diversity. The serpentine lineages, however, may not represent evolutionary ‘dead-ends’ but rather dynamic systems with a potential to further influence the surrounding populations, e.g., via independent polyplodization and hybridization. The complex eco-geographical pattern together with the incidence of both primary and secondary diploid-tetraploid contact zones makes K. arvensis a unique system for addressing general questions of polyploid research.
Many cases of rapid evolutionary radiations in plant and animal lineages are known; however phylogenetic relationships among these lineages have been difficult to resolve by systematists. Increasing amounts of genomic data have been sequentially applied in an attempt to resolve these radiations, dissecting their evolutionary patterns into a series of bifurcating events. Here we explore one such rapid radiation in the tropical plant order Zingiberales (the bananas and relatives) which includes eight families, approximately 110 genera, and more than 2600 species. One clade, the "Ginger families", including (Costaceae + Zingiberaceae) (Marantaceae + Cannaceae), has been well-resolved and well-supported in all previous studies. However, well-supported reconstructions among the "Banana families" (Musaceae, Heliconiaceae, Lowiaceae, Strelitziaceae), which most likely diverged about 90 Mya, have been difficult to confirm. Supported with anatomical, morphological, single locus, and genome-wide data, nearly every possible phylogenetic placement has been proposed for these families. In an attempt to resolve this complex evolutionary event, hybridization-based target enrichment was used to obtain sequences from up to 378 putatively orthologous low-copy nuclear genes (all ≥ 960 bp). Individual gene trees recovered multiple topologies among the early divergent lineages, with varying levels of support for these relationships. One topology of the "Banana families" (Musaceae (Heliconiaceae (Lowiaceae + Strelitziaceae))), which has not been suggested until now, was almost consistently recovered in all multilocus analyses of the nuclear dataset (concatenated - ExaML, coalescent - ASTRAL and ASTRID, supertree - MRL, and Bayesian concordance - BUCKy). Nevertheless, the multiple topologies recovered among these lineages suggest that even large amounts of genomic data might not be able to fully resolve relationships at this phylogenetic depth. This lack of well-supported resolution could suggest methodological problems (i.e., violation of model assumptions in both concatenated and coalescent analyses) or more likely reflect an evolutionary history shaped by an explosive, rapid, and nearly simultaneous polychotomous radiation in this group of plants towards the end of the Cretaceous, perhaps driven by vertebrate pollinator selection.
2019. An empirical assessment of a single family-wide hybrid capture locus set at multiple evolutionary timescales in Asteraceae. Applications in Plant Sciences 7(10): e11295. PREMISE:Hybrid capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hyb-Seq) is a powerful tool for evolutionary studies. The applicability of an Asteraceae family-specific Hyb-Seq probe set and the outcomes of different phylogenetic analyses are investigated here. METHODS:Hyb-Seq data from 112 Asteraceae samples were organized into groups at different taxonomic levels (tribe, genus, and species). For each group, data sets of non-paralogous loci were built and proportions of parsimony informative characters estimated. The impacts of analyzing alternative data sets, removing long branches, and type of analysis on tree resolution and inferred topologies were investigated in tribe Cichorieae. RESULTS:Alignments of the Asteraceae family-wide Hyb-Seq locus set were parsimony informative at all taxonomic levels. Levels of resolution and topologies inferred at shallower nodes differed depending on the locus data set and the type of analysis, and were affected by the presence of long branches. DISCUSSION:The approach used to build a Hyb-Seq locus data set influenced resolution and topologies inferred in phylogenetic analyses. Removal of long branches improved the reliability of topological inferences in maximum likelihood analyses. The Astereaceae Hyb-Seq probe set is applicable at multiple taxonomic depths, which demonstrates that probe sets do not necessarily need to be lineage-specific.
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