Despite a long-suspected role in the development of human colorectal cancer (CRC), the composition of gut microbiota in CRC patients has not been adequately described. In this study, fecal bacterial diversity in CRC patients (n=46) and healthy volunteers (n=56) were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Both principal component analysis and UniFrac analysis showed structural segregation between the two populations. Forty-eight operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified by redundancy analysis as key variables significantly associated with the structural difference. One OTU closely related to Bacteroides fragilis was enriched in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, whereas three OTUs related to Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis were enriched in that of healthy volunteers. A total of 11 OTUs belonging to the genera Enterococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, Klebsiella, Streptococcus and Peptostreptococcus were significantly more abundant in the gut microbiota of CRC patients, and 5 OTUs belonging to the genus Roseburia and other butyrate-producing bacteria of the family Lachnospiraceae were less abundant. Real-time quantitative PCR further validated the significant reduction of butyrate-producing bacteria in the gut microbiota of CRC patients by measuring the copy numbers of butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase genes (Mann-Whitney test, P<0.01). Reduction of butyrate producers and increase of opportunistic pathogens may constitute a major structural imbalance of gut microbiota in CRC patients.
BackgroundCoronary artery disease (CAD) has substantial heritability and a polygenic architecture. However, the potential of genomic risk scores to help predict CAD outcomes has not been evaluated comprehensively, because available studies have involved limited genomic scope and limited sample sizes.ObjectivesThis study sought to construct a genomic risk score for CAD and to estimate its potential as a screening tool for primary prevention.MethodsUsing a meta-analytic approach to combine large-scale, genome-wide, and targeted genetic association data, we developed a new genomic risk score for CAD (metaGRS) consisting of 1.7 million genetic variants. We externally tested metaGRS, both by itself and in combination with available data on conventional risk factors, in 22,242 CAD cases and 460,387 noncases from the UK Biobank.ResultsThe hazard ratio (HR) for CAD was 1.71 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.68 to 1.73) per SD increase in metaGRS, an association larger than any other externally tested genetic risk score previously published. The metaGRS stratified individuals into significantly different life course trajectories of CAD risk, with those in the top 20% of metaGRS distribution having an HR of 4.17 (95% CI: 3.97 to 4.38) compared with those in the bottom 20%. The corresponding HR was 2.83 (95% CI: 2.61 to 3.07) among individuals on lipid-lowering or antihypertensive medications. The metaGRS had a higher C-index (C = 0.623; 95% CI: 0.615 to 0.631) for incident CAD than any of 6 conventional factors (smoking, diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, self-reported high cholesterol, and family history). For men in the top 20% of metaGRS with >2 conventional factors, 10% cumulative risk of CAD was reached by 48 years of age.ConclusionsThe genomic score developed and evaluated here substantially advances the concept of using genomic information to stratify individuals with different trajectories of CAD risk and highlights the potential for genomic screening in early life to complement conventional risk prediction.
Tracheal intubation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients creates a risk to physiologically compromised patients and to attending healthcare providers. Clinical information on airway management and expert recommendations in these patients are urgently needed. By analysing a two-centre retrospective observational case series from Wuhan,
A search is conducted for new resonant and non-resonant high-mass phenomena in dielectron and dimuon final states. The search uses 36.1 fb −1 of proton-proton collision data, collected at √ s = 13 TeV by the ATLAS experiment at the LHC in 2015 and 2016. No significant deviation from the Standard Model prediction is observed. Upper limits at 95% credibility level are set on the cross-section times branching ratio for resonances decaying into dileptons, which are converted to lower limits on the resonance mass, up to 4.1 TeV for the E 6 -motivated Z χ . Lower limits on the qq contact interaction scale are set between 2.4 TeV and 40 TeV, depending on the model. Conclusion 21A Dilepton invariant mass tables 22The ATLAS collaboration 44 IntroductionThis article presents a search for resonant and non-resonant new phenomena, based on the analysis of dilepton final states (ee and µµ) in proton-proton (pp) collisions with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operating at √ s = 13 TeV. The data set was collected during 2015 and 2016, and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb −1 . In the search for new physics carried out at hadron colliders, the study of -1 - JHEP10(2017)182dilepton final states provides excellent sensitivity to a large variety of phenomena. This experimental signature benefits from a fully reconstructed final state, high signal-selection efficiencies and relatively small, well-understood backgrounds, representing a powerful test for a wide range of theories beyond the Standard Model (SM).Models with extended gauge groups often feature additional U(1) symmetries with corresponding heavy spin-1 bosons. These bosons, generally referred to as Z , would manifest as a narrow resonance through its decay, in the dilepton mass spectrum. Among these models are those inspired by Grand Unified Theories, which are motivated by gauge unification or a restoration of the left-right symmetry violated by the weak interaction. Examples considered in this article include the Z bosons of the E 6 -motivated [1,2] theories as well as Minimal models . The Sequential Standard Model (SSM)  is also considered due to its inherent simplicity and usefulness as a benchmark model. The SSM manifests a Z SSM boson with couplings to fermions equal to those of the SM Z boson.The most sensitive previous searches for a Z boson decaying into the dilepton final state were carried out by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations [4,5]. Using 3.2 fb −1 of pp collision data at √ s = 13 TeV collected in 2015, ATLAS set a lower exclusion limit at 95% credibility level (CL) on the Z SSM pole mass of 3.4 TeV for the combined ee and µµ channels. Similar limits were set by CMS using the 2015 data sample.This search is also sensitive to a series of other models that predict the presence of narrow dilepton resonances. These models include the Randall-Sundrum (RS) model  with a warped extra dimension giving rise to spin-2 graviton excitations, the quantum black-hole model , the Z * model , and the minimal wal...
Conjugated microporous polymers are a new class of porous materials with an extended π-conjugation in an amorphous organic framework. Owing to the wide-ranging flexibility in the choice and design of components and the available control of pore parameters, these polymers can be tailored for use in various applications, such as gas storage, electronics and catalysis. Here we report a class of cobalt/aluminium-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers that exhibit outstanding CO2 capture and conversion performance at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. These polymers can store CO2 with adsorption capacities comparable to metal-organic frameworks. The cobalt-coordinated conjugated microporous polymers can also simultaneously function as heterogeneous catalysts for the reaction of CO2 and propylene oxide at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, wherein the polymers demonstrate better efficiency than a homogeneous salen-cobalt catalyst. By combining the functions of gas storage and catalysts, this strategy provides a direction for cost-effective CO2 reduction processes.
ObjectiveNeutrophils are prominent components of solid tumours and exhibit distinct phenotypes in different tumour microenvironments. However, the nature, regulation, function and clinical relevance of neutrophils in human gastric cancer (GC) are presently unknown.DesignFlow cytometry analyses were performed to examine levels and phenotype of neutrophils in samples from 105 patients with GC. Kaplan-Meier plots for overall survival were performed using the log-rank test. Neutrophils and T cells were isolated, stimulated and/or cultured for in vitro and in vivo regulation and function assays.ResultsPatients with GC showed a significantly higher neutrophil infiltration in tumours. These tumour-infiltrating neutrophils showed an activated CD54+ phenotype and expressed high level immunosuppressive molecule programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Neutrophils activated by tumours prolonged their lifespan and strongly expressed PD-L1 proteins with similar phenotype to their status in GC, and significant correlations were found between the levels of PD-L1 and CD54 on tumour-infiltrating neutrophils. Moreover, these PD-L1+ neutrophils in tumours were associated with disease progression and reduced GC patient survival. Tumour-derived GM-CSF activated neutrophils and induced neutrophil PD-L1 expression via Janus kinase (JAK)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signalling pathway. The activated PD-L1+ neutrophils effectively suppressed normal T-cell immunity in vitro and contributed to the growth and progression of human GC in vivo; the effect could be reversed by blocking PD-L1 on these neutrophils.ConclusionsOur results illuminate a novel mechanism of PD-L1 expression on tumour-activated neutrophils in GC, and also provide functional evidence for these novel GM-CSF-PD-L1 pathways to prevent, and to treat this immune tolerance feature of GC.
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as a promising clinical modality for cancer therapy due to its ability to initiate an antitumor immune response. However, PDT-mediated cancer immunotherapy is severely impaired by tumor-cell immunosuppression of host T cell antitumor activity through the programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) and programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1) (PD-L1-PD-1) immune checkpoint pathway. Here, we demonstrate that PDT-mediated cancer immunotherapy can be augmented by PD-L1 knockdown (KD) in tumor cells. We rationally designed a versatile micelleplex by integrating an acid-activatable cationic micelle, photosensitizer (PS), and small interfering RNA (siRNA). The micelleplex was inert at physiological pH conditions and activated only upon internalization in the acidic endocytic vesicles of tumor cells for fluorescence imaging and PDT. Compared to PDT alone, the combination of PDT and PD-L1 KD showed significantly enhanced efficacy for inhibiting tumor growth and distant metastasis in a B16-F10 melanoma xenograft tumor model. These results suggest that acid-activatable micelleplexes utilizing PDT-induced cancer immunotherapy are more effective when combined with siRNA-mediated PD-L1 blockade. This study could provide a general strategy for enhancing the therapy efficacy of photodynamic cancer therapy.
Zhong et al. describe two novel roles for soluble TREM2 (sTREM2) in regulation of proinflammatory responses and prevention of cellular apoptosis in microglia.
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