BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Parental perceptions of their children' s weight play an important role in obesity prevention and treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of parents worldwide who underestimate their children' s weight and moderators of such misperceptions. METHODS:Original studies published to January 2013 were chosen through literature searches in PUBMED, PSYCHINFO, and CINAHL databases. References of retrieved articles were also searched for relevant studies. Studies were published in English and assessed parental perceptions of children' s weight and then compared perceptions to recognized standards for defining overweight based on anthropometric measures. Data were extracted on study-level constructs, child-and parent-characteristics, procedural characteristics, and parental underestimates separately for normal-weight and overweight/obese samples. Pooled effect sizes were calculated using random-effects models and adjusted for publication bias. Moderators were explored using mixed-effect models.RESULTS: A total of 69 articles (representing 78 samples; n = 15 791) were included in the overweight/obese meta-analysis. Adjusted effect sizes revealed that 50.7% (95% confidence interval 31.1%-70.2%) of parents underestimate their overweight/obese children' s weight. Significant moderators of this effect included child' s age and BMI. A total of 52 articles (representing 59 samples; n = 64 895) were included in the normal-weight meta-analysis. Pooled effect sizes indicated that 14.3% (95% confidence interval 11.7%-17.4%) of parents underestimate their children' s normal-weight status. Significant moderators of this effect included child gender, parent weight, and the method (visual versus nonvisual) in which perception was assessed. CONCLUSIONS:Half of parents underestimated their children' s overweight/obese status and a significant minority underestimated children' s normal weight. Pediatricians are well positioned to make efforts to remedy parental underestimates and promote adoption of healthy habits. Ms Lundahl conceptualized the study, coded the original studies, conducted the meta-analyses, and drafted the initial manuscript; Ms Kidwell coded a portion of the original studies, reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted; and Dr Nelson contributed to the conceptualization of the study, critically reviewed and revised the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.www.pediatrics.org/cgi
CONTEXT: Mixed findings exist on whether stimulant medications alter youth sleep. OBJECTIVE:To determine the effect of stimulant medications on sleep.DATA STUDIES: Studies published through March 2015 were collected via CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PubMed. References of retrieved articles were reviewed.STUDY SELECTION: Eligibility criteria included studies with children/adolescents who had attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), random assignment to stimulants, and objective sleep measurement. Studies that did not include information about key variables were excluded. DATA EXTRACTION: Study-level, child-level, and sleep data were extracted by 2 independent coders. Effect sizes were calculated by using random effects models. Potential moderators were examined by using mixed effect models.RESULTS: A total of 9 articles (N = 246) were included. For sleep latency, the adjusted effect size (0.54) was significant, indicating that stimulants produce longer sleep latencies. Frequency of dose per day was a significant moderator. For sleep efficiency, the adjusted effect size (20.32) was significant. Significant moderators included length of time on medication, number of nights of sleep assessed, polysomnography/actigraphy, and gender. Specifically, the effect of medication was less evident when youth were taking medication longer. For total sleep time, the effect size (20.59) was significant, such that stimulants led to shorter sleep duration. LIMITATIONS:Limitations include few studies, limited methodologic variability, and lack of unpublished studies.CONCLUSIONS: Stimulant medication led to longer sleep latency, worse sleep efficiency, and shorter sleep duration. Overall, youth had worse sleep on stimulant medications. It is recommended that pediatricians carefully monitor sleep problems and adjust treatment to promote optimal sleep.Department of Psychology, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NebraskaMs Kidwell contributed to the conceptualization of the study, organized literature searches, coded the original studies, and drafted the introduction and discussion sections; Ms Van Dyk contributed to the conceptualization of the study, coded the original studies for reliability analyses, and reviewed and revised the manuscript; Ms Lundahl contributed to the conceptualization of the study, conducted the meta-analyses, and drafted the methods and results sections; Dr Nelson contributed to the conceptualization of the study and provided critical editing of the manuscript; and all authors approved the final manuscript as submitted.www.pediatrics.org/cgi
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THIS SUBJECT:Children who are frequent targets (victims) or perpetrators of peer aggression are at increased risk for psychosocial problems. Linkages between health and involvement in peer aggression have been proposed, but research evidence remains sparse. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS:This study shows that self-reported victimization and classmate-reported aggression toward peers are both associated with more frequent visits to a school nurse for illness with objective symptoms, somatic complaints without objective symptoms, and injuries. abstract OBJECTIVE: To examine how involvement in aggressor-victim interactions is linked to somatic complaints, illnesses, and physical injuries among elementary school-aged children. STUDY DESIGN:This study was composed of a school-based sample of 590 children in grades 3 through 5. Independent sources were used to assess victimization (self-report) and aggression (peer report) in the fall semester. School nursing logs for the entire school year were collected in May and coded for the number of times each child presented with a somatic complaint, illness, or injury. RESULTS:Both aggression and victimization were significantly related to all 3 reasons for nurse visits, controlling for demographic variables. Higher levels of aggression and victimization each were independently associated with more frequent visits to the school nurse for somatic complaints, illnesses, and injuries. A significant victimization-timesaggression interaction was found for illnesses, with nonaggressive victimized children presenting most frequently for illness visits. CONCLUSIONS:Involvement in aggressor-victim interactions, as either aggressor, victim, or both, is associated with more frequent health complaints, based on school nursing logs. Prevention, early identification, and treatment of problems with victimization and aggression may have important health implications for children.
ease, and major depression (Irwin 2015). Because adolescents are a population vulnerable to poor sleep during a key developmental period of significant physiological and environmental change, they are an important group to systematically assess with regard to sleep patterns and social conditions linked to chronic Perceived Discrimination and Adolescent Sleep in a Community Sample br idget J. goosby, Jacob e. che a dle, W hit ney strongba K, tay lor c. roth, a nd timoth y d. nelson Sleep is a key restorative process, and poor sleep is linked to disease and mortality risk. The adolescent population requires more sleep on average than adults but are most likely to be sleep deprived. Adolescence is a time of rapid social upheaval and sensitivity to social stressors including discrimination. This study uses two weeks of daily e-diary measures documenting discrimination exposure and concurrent objective sleep indicators measured using actigraphy. We assess associations between daily discrimination and contemporaneous sleep with a diverse sample of adolescents. This novel study shows youth with higher average discrimination reports have worse average sleep relative to their counterparts. Interestingly, youth reporting daily discrimination have better sleep the day of the report than youth who do not.
The foods we eat have substantial impact on our health, and excessive food intake is associated with numerous long-term health conditions. It is therefore essential to understand the factors influencing this crucial health behavior. Research has identified sleep problems as one such factor; however, little research has examined how sleep problems impact food intake. Using a multisystemic perspective, this article proposes a variety of ways in which sleep problems likely increase food intake and illustrates the need for research to empirically examine these underlying mechanisms. Such research would have important treatment implications for health conditions often treated with dietary interventions.
Overall, results of the study demonstrate that children and adolescents with migraine improved over time with multidisciplinary, standardized treatment regardless of supplementation with CoQ10 or placebo. There was no difference in headache outcomes between the CoQ10 and placebo groups at day 224. Due to the improvements seen in weeks 1-4, CoQ10 may lead to earlier improvement in headache severity, but given the sample size this conclusion warrants further investigation with a larger sample.
This study examined the factor structure for three of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) subscales, a widely used measure of parental feeding practices, among 296 low-income parents of African American preschool children. Confirmatory factor analysis showed an overall poor fit among CFQ subscales; Restriction, Pressure to Eat, and Concern about Child Weight, (χ2, (df = 87 = 300.249, CFI = 1.00, NNFI = 1.07, RMSEA = .091). Additionally, Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for 2 of the three subscales were below acceptable recommendations (Restriction = 0.69; Pressure to Eat = 0.58). These results suggest further psychometric clarification is needed to understand commonly reported feeding practice constructs among low-income African American mothers of preschool aged children.
Depression and anxiety are prevalent and impairing forms of psychopathology in children and adolescents. Deficits in early executive control (EC) may contribute to the development of these problems, but longitudinal studies with rigorous measurement across key developmental periods are limited. The current study examines EC in preschool as a predictor of subsequent depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school in a community sample (N = 280). Child participants completed a battery of nine developmentally-appropriate tasks designed to measure major aspects of EC at age 5 years, 3 months. Children later participated in an elementary school follow-up phase, during which they completed validated norm-referenced self-report questionnaires of depression and anxiety symptoms in fourth grade. Results indicate that poorer preschool EC was significantly associated with both greater depression and anxiety symptoms in elementary school, controlling for baseline depression and anxiety symptoms in preschool and other relevant variables. These findings suggest that poor EC may be an important risk factor for the development of internalizing psychopathology in childhood. Given emerging evidence for the modifiability of EC, particularly in preschool, EC promotion interventions may hold promise as a potential target in psychopathology prevention.
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