BACKGROUND: Nailfold capillaroscopy is a useful technique for evaluating changes in microcirculation. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes at nailfold capillaroscopy in psoriatic patients compared with controls. METHODS: Nailfold capillaroscopy was performed in 46 psoriatic patients and 50 controls to assess microscopic morphological changes, capillary density and the presence of areas with devascularization. RESULTS: Patients with psoriasis had lower capillary density (p=0.0005), increased avascular areas (p=0.0035) and an increased number of morphologically abnormal capillaries (coiled, p<0.0001) compared to controls. No association was found between capillary density and the duration of the disease (p = 0.92) or the extent of skin involvement, as measured by the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) score (p = 0.59). The presence of avascular areas was more common in psoriatic individuals whose nails were affected by the condition (p = 0.047). CONCLUSION: Patients with psoriasis have decreased capillary density and a greater presence of morphologically abnormal capillaries when compared to controls. Keywords: Capillaries; Microscopic angioscopy; Psoriasis; Psoriatic arthritis Resumo: FUNDAMENTOS: A capilaroscopia periungueal é um método utilizado no estudo de alterações da microcirculação. OBJETIVO: Verificar alterações na capilaroscopia periungueal de pacientes com psoríase, comparando-os com controles saudáveis. MÉTODOS: A capilaroscopia periungueal foi realizada em 46 pacientes com psoríase e 50 controles, utilizando-se um estereomicroscópio e observando-se alterações morfológicas, densidade capilar e presença de áreas com desvascularização. RESULTADOS: Pacientes com psoríase tinham menor densidade capilar (p=0,0005), maior presença de áreas avasculares (p=0,0035) e de capilares morfologicamente alterados (enrodilhados; p<0.0001) do que os controles. Não se encontrou associação entre densidade capilar e tempo de doença (p=0.92) ou grau de envolvimento cutâneo medido pelo PASI (p=0.59). A presença de áreas avasculares foi mais comum em indivíduos com psoríase que tinham envolvimento ungueal (p=0,047). CONCLUSÃO: Pacientes com psoríase têm menor densidade capilar e presença de capilares morfologicamente alterados em relação aos controles.
An increasing number of women have been diagnosed with spondyloarthritis (SpA) in recent decades. While a few studies have analyzed gender as a prognostic factor of the disease, no studies have addressed this matter with a large number of patients in South America, which is a peculiar region due to its genetic heterogeneity. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of gender on disease patterns in a large cohort of Brazilian patients with SpA. A prospective study was carried out involving 1,505 patients [1,090 males (72.4%) and 415 females (27.6%)] classified as SpA according to the European Spondyloarthropaties Study Group criteria who attended at 29 reference centers for rheumatology in Brazil. Clinical and demographic variables were recorded and the following disease indices were administered: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Radiologic Index (BASRI), Maastricht Ankylosing Spondylitis Enthesitis Score (MASES), and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life (ASQoL). Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) was the most frequent disease in the group (65.4%), followed by psoriatic arthritis (18.4%), undifferentiated SpA (6.7%), reactive arthritis (3.3%), arthritis associated to inflammatory bowel disease (3.2%), and juvenile SpA (2.9%). The male-to-female ratio was 2.6:1 for the whole group and 3.6:1 for AS. The females were older (p < 0.001) and reported shorter disease duration (p = 0.002) than the male patients. The female gender was positively associated to peripheral SpA (p < 0.001), upper limb arthritis (p < 0.001), dactylitis (p = 0.011), psoriasis (p < 0.001), nail involvement (p < 0.001), and family history of SpA (p = 0.045) and negatively associated to pure axial involvement (p < 0.001), lumbar inflammatory pain (p = 0.042), radiographic sacroiliitis (p < 0.001), and positive HLA-B27 (p = 0.001). The number of painful (p < 0.001) and swollen (p = 0.006) joints was significantly higher in the female gender, who also achieved higher BASDAI (p < 0.001), BASFI (p = 0.073, trend), MASES (p = 0.019), ASQoL (p = 0.014), and patient's global assessment (p = 0.003) scores, whereas the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (p < 0.001) and biological agents (p = 0.003) was less frequent in the female gender. Moreover, BASRI values were significantly lower in females (p < 0.001). The female gender comprised one third of SpA patients in this large cohort and exhibited more significant peripheral involvement and less functional disability, despite higher values in disease indices.
In our psoriasis sample, MS prevalence is high and the items that deserve more attention are central obesity, low HDL, hypertension and smoking habits. In the psoriasis group, MS was associated independently with older age and less scalp involvement.
It has been suggested that the adaptive stress response may be disrupted by life adverse events such as childhood maltreatment. To investigate if the number of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) increases susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), spondyloarthritis (SpA), scleroderma (SSc), and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we interviewed 315 patients with rheumatic disease (100 SLE; 40 SSc; 60 SpA; 115 RA) and 272 controls, using questions of the ACEs study questionnaire validated to ask about experiences of childhood abuse, negligence, domestic violence, and household dysfunctions. The questionnaire score ranges from zero (best result) to 8 (worst scenario). Patients and controls did not differ regarding the median number of ACEs (3 in both groups, patient IQR = 2.5-5 vs. control IQR = 2-5, p = 0.45). Among the patients, 63.8% (201/315) presented ACE score ≥ 3, compared with 59.9% (163/272) of the controls (p = 0.31). The proportion of patients with at least 3 ACEs did also not differ among those with different rheumatic diseases. Specifically, 64% (64/100) of those with SLE, 60% (24/40) of those with SSc, 60% (36/60) of those with SpA, and 66.9% (77/115) of those with RA reported at least 3 ACEs. There was also no difference between the distribution of ACE scores and number of individuals with ACEs ≥ 3 between patients with different rheumatic diseases and controls. Nevertheless, there was a trend for association between higher ACE score and susceptibility to RA (p = 0.06). In this setting, the occurrence of ACEs was not associated with susceptibility to rheumatic diseases in adulthood.
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