An enantiopure α-D-glucopyranoside derivative has been used as a platform to prepare artificial antenna systems based on bodipy subunits. Efficient and ultrafast energy transfer (in the fs and ps time regimes) takes place in the multibodipy systems.
Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products.
Arthrospira platensis (spirulina) is considered a source of natural molecules with nutritional and health benefits. As the different storage forms can affect the quantity and quality of bioactive ingredients, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of freezing, oven-drying and freeze-drying on chemical composition of spirulina biomass. Total proteins, photosynthetic pigments and antioxidants, were analyzed and compared to respective quantities in fresh biomass. The frozen sample exhibited the highest content of phycocyanin-C, phenols, and ascorbic acid, also respect to the fresh biomass. The highest total flavonoid amount was in the freeze-dried biomass. HPLC-DAD analysis of phenolic acids revealed the presence of the isoflavone genistein, known for its therapeutic role, in all the spirulina samples. The phosphomolybdenum method (TAC) and DPPH scavenging activity were applied to determine the antioxidant activity of different samples. The highest DPPH scavenging activity was detected in fresh and freeze-dried biomass and it was positively related to carotenoid content. A positive correlation indicated that carotenoids, chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and all phenolic compounds were the major contributors to the TAC activity in spirulina biomass. The results highlighted a different functional value of spirulina biomass, depending on the processing methods used for its storage.
A series of bis- and tris-bridged thiacyclophane S-oxides, as racemates or meso products, have been synthesized with a new procedure. Starting from the corresponding thiols, in three steps, transient polyarene- and polyarylmethane-sulfenic acids were generated in the presence of di- and triethynylbenzenes. The thermal syn-addition of these sulfenic acids onto the triple bonds of the unsaturated acceptors was conducted in CH2Cl2 at 40 degrees C. The concentration of sulfoxide precursors of sulfenic acid and the sulfoxide/acceptor molar ratio addressed the syn-addition toward open-chain benzene sulfoxides or thiacyclophane S-oxides. Complete stereochemical control was observed in some reactions between polysulfenic acids and ethynylbenzenes, where the meso dithiacyclophane S,S'-dioxides were obtained exclusively, whereas 1:1 mixtures of meso/rac dithiacyclophanes S,S'-dioxides were isolated as products of other reactions. In almost all the cases, the obtained compounds were separated by column chromatography. The structure assignment of the new heterophanes was done on the basis of their diagnostic NMR spectra and X-ray crystallographic analysis of some of them. Open-chain polysulfinyl and polysulfinylmethyl benzenes, obtained as meso/rac mixtures, were separated and the products were fully characterized. Both synthesized cages, including trithia[3(3)](1,3,5)cyclophane S,S',S' '-trioxides, and bi- and tripodal benzene sulfoxides, appear promising in the field of coordination and material chemistry.
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